Conformal coatings differ in their material-specific performance properties as protective films for electronic assemblies. Knowing the operational characteristics of various coating-types and their functional association with assembly components supports successful film application. Issues that confound conformal coating selection and application result from potential post-application problems like:Read More
Parylene Coating Blog by Diamond-MT
Operationally, conformal coatings are applied to the surface of PCBs and related electrical components, to insulate and protect them during use. Coatings improve PCBs’ performance under any circumstances, but are especially valuable for their functional tolerance to harsher working environments.Read More
Application methods must first reflect the targeted substrate’s susceptibility to the coating material. Liquid coatings – acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane – each possess specific performance properties. Optimal protection and operational efficiency depend onRead More
In the highly competitive conformal coatings’ industry, these providers stand out:Read More
Appropriately selected and applied, conformal coatings provide essential working protection for printed circuit boards (PCBs). However, removal of conformal coatings is necessary if the wrong coating material is selected relative to the PCB’s functional requirements, inadequately supporting its operating environment. Poor coating application can trigger failure mechanisms within the assembly, also calling for its removal and re-application.Read More
Withstanding such complications to the operational environment as corrosion, fungus, oxidation, rain, salt water/mist, snow, temperature fluctuations or vibration is essential to long-term performance of electronic devices. Without suitable protection, printed circuit boards (PCBs) and similar electronics will not survive harsh environments, and malfunction. Prominent examples include:Read More
Conformal coatings made of acrylic resin (AR) are very popular, because of their distinctive beneficial properties. They protect printed circuit boards (PCBs) and similar electronics from corrosion, dirt, dust, fungus, moisture, and thermal shocks. Exceptionally user-friendly, liquid AR can be simply applied by brush, dip, or manual/robotic spray, generally resulting in the fastest turnaround-time of all conformal coatings. Ease of application and rework generates low cost for both manufacturer and client. AR’s moisture protection is also very highly rated, adding to its utility for a wide range of coating uses.Read More
Materially, parylene is the most distinctive of the major conformal coatings. But just how does it differ from liquid coatings -- acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane??Read More
Printed circuit boards (PCBs) electrically connect and power all but the simplest electronic products. To function as designed, PCBs and their components – capacitors, resistors, etc. – require protection against operating problems caused by corrosive liquids, dust, physical shock, temperature extremes and, in the case of medical implants, bodily fluids. Conformal coatings are applied over PCBs to safeguard mechanisms and maintain functionality.Read More
Contributing to good performance for internal medical appliances, lubricity is a conformal coating’s ability to lower operational friction that might retard its function and endanger patient health. Lubricious coatings offer essential protection for appliances like cardiac-assist devices (CADs), catheters, elastomers, guidewires, and stents. Compared to an uncoated device, lubricious films can reduce frictional forces by more than 90%, dramatically decreasing potential harm caused by excessive insertion-force or internal puncture damage. This relative ease of use is important for implants and similar devices that require navigation throughout the patient’s vascular system or other internal structure; otherwise, patients can suffer from abrasion generated between the device surface and blood vessel walls.
Coefficient of Surface Friction
The degree of physical resistance a device demonstrates is numerically expressed by a coating’s coefficient of friction (µ), which quantifies:
- the magnitude of resistance a surface exerts on substances moving across it, or
- the minimum force necessary for an object to slide on a surface, divided by the forces pressing them together.
Static friction (µs) occurs when an object moves across a stationary surface; kinetic friction (µk) results for two objects simultaneously in motion, moving across each other. Conformal coatings are used in both circumstances, especially for medical implants with moving MEMS/nano-tech components.
Where higher-level surface lubricity is sought, lower µ-values are the objective; they signify lessened frictional resistance, minimizing non-release, dry-sticking challenges that interfere with devices’ performance. For instance, a µ-value of 1 indicates an equal quantity of force is needed to either lift an object, or slide it across a level surface; these calculations compare an object’s weight to the total force required to make it move. Most everyday objects and materials have a coefficient between 0 and 1; values closer to 1 are not feasible for medical purposes. For medical devices, a µ-value:
- ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 is ideal,
- but remains difficult to achieve
- for application to the expansive degree of metallic and polymeric substrates used for medical appliances,
- which require highly-specified levels of abrasion resistance and non-thrombogenic properties,
- in addition to biocompatibility and lubricity.
Appropriate safety standards also need to be met.
Much depends on the materials comprising the touching surfaces. Conformal coatings like Teflon (PTFE) and parylene, which provide high-level lubricity, maintain that level for a prolonged operational duration, making them very useful for specialized medical applications.
Properties of Reliable Coating Lubricity
Lubricated surfaces have lower levels of friction. Wet hydrophilic coatings amass water as a source of lubricity, applied by liquid methods such as dipping or spraying the film substance onto substrates. Applied to catheters or guidewires, they temporarily minimize development of thrombosis. However, their lubricious function decreases with time, dissociating or dissolving from the matrix surface, leaving particulates in tissue or the bloodstream, endangering patient health. Thus, they are less reliable long-term than hydrophobic coatingsRead More