Conformal coatings primary purpose is protecting the performance of highly sophisticated electronics such as printed circuit boards (PCBs), sustaining their functionality through often unfriendly operating conditions. Among the most important coating-requirement is safeguarding PCBs from the negative impact of moisture incursion. Sources are many. Liquidized obstacles to appropriate assembly function can result from unwanted contact with acid rain, aggressive solvents, atmosphere pollutants, chemicals, fog, high humidity, intermittent immersion, persistent rain, snow, salt water/mist and wet sprays of any kind.Read More
Parylene Coating Blog by Diamond-MT
Chemically inert parylene (Poly-para-xylylene/XY) conformal film is often selected because its micron-thin protective films generate precise coating uniformity, regardless of substrate topography. To this extent, XY far exceeds the capacities of liquid materials – resins of acrylic, epoxy, silicone or urethane – for a wide range of coating assignments. It is true that pre-synthesized liquid coatings are easier to apply. However, their conformal films are dimensionally thicker, making them difficult to position in constricted operating spaces. Liquids are also generally less resistant to contaminant incursion and other problems that interfere with reliable performance of printed circuit boards (PCBs), and most other contemporary electronics, including biomedical implants.Read More
Used for food production, indoor gardening/hydroponics, and horticulture, grow lights have both industrial and consumer applications. Because total illumination intensity diminishes with distance from the point source (grow lightbulbs), production efficiency is enhanced by:Read More
A specialized chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process attaches conformal coatings composed parylene (XY) to substrates. CVD uniformly encapsulates all exposed substrate surfaces as a gaseous monomer; completely eliminating wet coatings’ liquid phase and need for post-deposition curing. Synthesizing in-process, CVD polymerization requires careful monitoring of temperature levels throughout.
Beneficial thermal properties of XY protective coatings include reliable performance through an exceptional range of temperatures. Parylene is available in variety of material formats, prominently Types C, N, F, D and AH-4. Each has a particular range of properties that determine its optimal uses. Types C and N exhibit faster deposition rates than other parylenes, making them useful for a wider range of coating functions. However, operating temperature is a significant determinant of use: Much depends on chemical composition.
- Used more frequently than other XY varietals, Parylene C is a poly-monochoro para-xylene. It is a carbon-hydrogen combination material, with one chlorine group per repeat-unit on its main-chain phenyl ring. In oxygen-dominated atmospheres, C conformal films regularly provide reliable assembly security at temperatures of 100° C (212° F/water’s boiling point) for 100,000 hours (approximately 10 years). C is suggested for use in operating environments reflecting these temperature conditions. Chemical, corrosive gas, moisture, and vapor permeability remain consistently low. C generates exceptional vacuum stability, registering only 0.12% total weight-loss (TWL) at 49.4° C/10-6 torr (1 torr = 1/760 SAP (standard atmospheric pressure, 1 mm Hg). C can also be effective at temperatures below zero, to -165º C.
- With a completely linear chemical format, Parylene N is the most naturally-occurring of the parylene series. Used less regularly than Type C, N is highly crystalline; each molecule consists of a carbon-hydrogen combination. N’s melting point of 420° C is greater than most other XY types. Vacuum stability is high, registering TWL-levels of 0.30% at 49.4° C, and 10-6 torr. These properties encourage higher temperature applications. Compared to other XY varietals, N’s low dielectric constant/dissipation values also recommend uses with assemblies and parts subjected to higher levels of unit vibration during operation. N’s electrical/physical properties are not noticeably impacted by cycling from -270º C to room temperature, adding to its versatility.
- Parylene F has fluorine atoms on its aromatic ring. Possessing aliphatic -CH2- chemistry, F’s superior thermal stability is attributed to this aliphatic C-F bond, compared to Type C’s C-C bond. Better thermal stability, and reduced electrical charge/dielectric constant expand its use for ILD (inner layer dielectric) applications, such as those for ULSI (ultra large-scale integration), where a single chip can incorporate a million or more circuit elements. F is a good choice for many microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)/nanotech (NT) solutions.
- Originating from the same monomer as Type C, Parylene D’s chemical composition contains two atoms of chlorine in place of two hydrogen atoms. Like Type C, D conformal films can perform at 134° C (273° F), dependably securing assembly performance in oxygen-dominated environs for 10 years, at a constant 100° C. Parylene F resists higher operating temperatures and UV light better than C or N.
- Parylene AF-4’s melting point is greater than 500° C. It survives at higher temperatures/UV-exposure better than other parylenes for long durations because it possesses CF2 units, situated between its polymer-chain rings.
Sensors measure specific aspects of data-driven technology. Included are such performance properties as acceleration, fluidity, humidity/temperature, position, pressure or vibration. Sensors collect data and respond with feedback for a multitude of electronic devices utilizing printed circuit boards (PCBs) and related sensitive electronics. They have been successfully adapted for use across a wide range of applications, including aerospace/military, appliance, automotive, communications, consumer, industrial, medical and transportation uses.
PCBs and the larger devices they power often need to function in harsh operating environments. Conformal coatings -- liquid acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane resins, and chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) parylene – provide PCBs and similar electronics excellent barrier, dielectric and insulative protection through most performance conditions, sustaining their expected utility. Substrate adhesion is necessary to conformal film reliability; coatings do not work if they delaminate or otherwise disengage from the components they are applied to protect.Read More
Parylene (XY) polymers provide robust, dielectric, micron-thin conformal coatings for a considerable range of electronic devices, most prominently printed circuit boards (PCBs). XY’s unique chemical vapor deposition (CVD) application method synthesizes in-process, depositing gaseous parylene deep into a substrate’s surface. CVD occurs on a molecule-by-molecule basis, conforming to all underlying contours, regardless of shape or position, to the nanometer, if necessary. Pre-synthesized liquid coatings lack many of parylene’s performance properties, having far less ability to successfully and conformally penetrate crevices in the substrateRead More
Cleaning the substrate is an essential element of preparation for conformal coating. The reasons are easy to understand:Read More
Used as moisture and dielectric barriers, polymer parylene (p-xylylene/XY) coatings are conformal and pinhole free. Applied by a unique chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, parylene penetrates beneath substrate facades, simultaneously attaching above surfaces at the molecular level. CVD generated films cover crevices, exposed internal regions, points and sharp edges uniformly, without gaps or breaches. Compared to liquid coating materials – acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane -- XY film layers are micron-thin, enhancing their utility for microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) and nano technology (NT).Read More
Many medical devices rely on sensors to detect and measures conditions affecting patient health. Generally, physical properties within the body – heartbeat, blood pressure, breath rate, temperature, -- are recorded and transmitted to medical personnel/technology, allowing continuous physiological monitoring of health-specific disorders, to improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment.Read More
Parylene’s (XY) reputation as the most versatile and reliable of major conformal coating materials is well-earned. However, unlike liquid coatings –resins of acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane – parylene cannot be applied via relatively economical brush, dip or spray methods. XY can be the most expensive of the major conformal coatings to use, a factor influenced both by:Read More