Parylene Coating Blog by Diamond-MT

IoT (Internet of Things) & Parylene Conformal Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 27, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

The Internet of things (IoT) allows us to connect everyday things to the internet. It is defined as a network of devices, vehicles, appliances, and other things that are connected. IoT is possible with the use of sensors, actuators, electronics, and software embedded into the later. Data collected from these physical devices are sent back and forth for better operation through network connectivity. A multitude of applications in defense, security, medical and industrial applications are available. Wearable devices, underwater systems, agricultural technologies, smart home applications, automotive, aviation systems and other areas of applications make use of IoT devices.

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, parylene applications

Can Color be Added to Parylene?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 09, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene is a conformal coating exhibiting extraordinary properties such as high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. It is a transparent (colorless) film in the UV-V is range of the solar spectrum (Parylene N and C absorb below ≈280 nm). The high transmittance of the polymers in the visible region (90%) make them eligible for use in optical applications. For further information on the optical properties of Parylene you can visit “Parylene’s Optical Properties and Performance”.

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, parylene applications

Can Parylene be Layered?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 02, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Multilayer conformal coatings are advantageous in resolving diffusion or stability issues. A vast amount of knowledge is available in the literature about the use of multilayered stacks of Parylene and stacks making use of different intermediate materials such as metals and so on. Mostly, use of Multiple layers of Parylene C was commonly reported for Medical Implants [1].

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Tags: parylene, parylene coating process, parylene process, parylene deposition

What is the Service Life of Parylene?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 25, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Under ambient conditions (room temperature, in air) Parylene is a lifetime conformal coating. The exposure to environmental stressors like temperature, oxygen, UV-light and chemicals can degrade the lifetime especially when two or more are existent at the same time.

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Tags: parylene, parylene applications, UV light and parylene

Parylene and Hydrofluoric Acid

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 18, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene is a chemically inert conformal coating [1]. It has a well-established chemical vapor deposition process and patterning methods. It is a great candidate for use in various application areas (health, aerospace, oil and gas, microelectronics, and so on.) due to its mechanical, physical, optical and chemical properties. Parylene is known to withstand highly corrosive environments and it can be utilized as a barrier material against various etchants in different processes (e.g. Hydrofluoric acid (HF), nitric acid, and acetic acid; potassium hydroxide; and tetramethylammonium hydroxide).

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, medical parylene

What Types of Materials can be Parylene Coated?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 29, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

At Diamond MT we often get the question: “Can my xxx be parylene coated?”  The number of substrate surfaces that can be coated with parylene is plenty. In the table below a number of industrial applications that using Parylene conformal coatings are listed. The examples can be extended.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene applications

How Can You Validate Parylene Coverage?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 15, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene XY is a transparent, thin (hundreds of nanometers to a few micrometers), well adhering, pin-hole and defect free conformal coating. They are coated uniformly on flat surfaces and component configurations with sharp edges, points, flat surfaces, crevices or exposed internal surfaces are coated uniformly without voids.

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating inspection, parylene inpsection

Conformal Coatings for Oil & Gas Sensors

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 08, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Oil & Gas industry makes use of sensors which face extremely high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) environments as in downhole drilling (>200°C and 30 kspi). In US natural gas supply lie in reservoirs below 15,000 ft. Wells at these depths pose environmental challenges of drilling due to the temperature, pressure and gasses. Increasing the lifetime of drilling equipment and possibility for recalibration of sensors that drift at such depths would save millions of dollars if they can be preserved under these HTHP environments. The packaging of sensors is a key element in providing this kind of protection.

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating applications, oil and gas, polyurethane conformal coatings

5 Keys to Parylene Process

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 10, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene Process:

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Tags: parylene, parylene coating process, parylene process, parylene inpsection

Why does the parylene process take so long?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 06, 2020 @ 01:38 PM

Parylene is a transparent polymer that offers uniform and pinhole-free conformal coatings for printed circuit boards, medical devices, and microelectronics. Varieties of parylene are made available through a modification of the molecular structure of para-xylylene (Parylene N, C, D, and F-AF4, and F-VT4). Each modification results in a set of material properties that are applicable in different service conditions.

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Tags: parylene, parylene coating process, parylene process

How do I know 100% of my product was coated with Parylene?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Feb 28, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene conformal coatings are highly reliable and are highly sought after in applications such as military sensors to medical implants. Because, parylene coatings are colorless (transparent), thin (micro-scale) and uniformly deposited all over the target surface they are hardly visible to the naked eye. However, there are methods to detect or test the quality of the coatings that are designated by standards (MIL-STD, ASTM). These standards test coatings for the encapsulation properties of Parylene conformal coatings depending on where they will be used.  Leakage current and accelerated lifetime tests under different conditions (salty water, temperature, etc.)

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene coating process

Parylene C Conformal Coating: Optical Properties, Refractive Index and Application Areas

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 31, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene films are highly employed in different applications because they are chemically inert, transparent in the visible range of the solar spectrum, offer high dielectric strength and insulation resistance, low moisture vapor transmission and gas permeability rates [1]. They can also be deposited as void-free layers on complex geometries in deep, narrow crevices.

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Tags: parylene, UV light and parylene, agricultural lighting coating

How to Choose Parylene Thickness: Thin vs Thick Films

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 24, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Implications of Parylene Coating Thickness:

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Tags: parylene, parylene coating process, parylene thickness, parylene C

Parylene for Military Sensors

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 17, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Today, security systems rely on different types of advanced, intelligent and connected sensor technologies. Application areas are diverse: radar systems, vision, night vision (IR-cameras), acceleration- orientation-location detection (accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS), chemicals (neural toxins, other toxic gasses, liquids, materials), wearable sensors (body temperature, relative humidity, location detection), barometric (under water), air flow (aerospace, missiles) and they are brought together for multifunctionality on PCB’s which carry many sensor at a time. Sensors used in military applications pose stringent requirements such as robustness under severe environmental conditions and require longevity of sensing functions. Some of the environmental conditions that are harsh on sensors can be listed as:

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene properties, military electronics, parylene for aerospace

Comparison of Parylene C, N, and F :  Similarities, differences and their application areas

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 10, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

At Diamond MT, we offer parylene coatings of different polymeric varieties (N, C, and F) as listed in the following Table. The basic parylene molecule is the Parylene N (poly-para-xylylene) monomer. Modification of the Parylene N monomer by a functional group such as Chlorine and Fluorine leads to Parylene C (poly(2-chloro-para-xylylene)) and Parylene F, respectively. The derivatization of new varieties can be done by the addition of functional groups to Paryelene N main-chain phenyl ring and its alip

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, parylene C, parylene n, parylene f

Parylene Conformal Coatings for Oil & Gas Sensors

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 22, 2019 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene is a transparent polymer offering uniform and pinhole-free conformal coatings. Different varieties of parylene (Parylene N, C, D, AF4, and F) formed by a modification in their molecular structure. Each modification results in a set of material properties that are applicable in different service conditions. The basic type of parylene derivatives is the Parylene N (poly-para-xylylene) monomer.

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Tags: parylene, parylene coating process, sensors, oil and gas

Parylene’s Optical Properties and Performance

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 06, 2019 @ 08:00 AM

The polymer parylene (XY) is a reliable protective conformal film that safeguards the visual clarity and color of printed circuit boards (PCBs), similar electronic assemblies and other products.  XY optical clarity seldom diminishes to the extent either the coating or the underlying substrate becomes visually indistinct, although over-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light may eventually interfere with optical perception.  However, in the majority of cases, colorless parylene generates advantageous optical properties for a wide range of uses -- including artwork/museum artifacts, cameras/sensors, computer touchscreens, healthcare/medical devices, light-emitting diode systems (LEDs), and optoelectronic components maintaining consistent aerospace, scientific, and telecommunication operations.

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, optical performance

Parylene and Sterilization

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 30, 2019 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene (XY -- poly(para-xylylene)) organic polymers are highly regarded through a wide range of industries – aerospace/defense, automotive, commercial, industrial, medical – for their utility as conformal coatings.  Chemically inert, colorless, linear/polycrystalline and optically clear, XY coatings provide exceptional barrier protection, dielectric reliability, and insulation for printed circuit boards (PCBs) and similar electronic assemblies whose components must maintain performance through all operating conditions.  Parylene conformal films safeguard function in the presence of biogases, biofluids, chemicals, moisture/mist, salt compounds, and temperature fluctuations. 

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Tags: parylene, Medical conformal coatings, medical parylene, medical parylene uses, medical devices, bio-medical, medical device coating, sterilization

Corrosion Protection with Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 23, 2019 @ 08:00 AM

A natural process, corrosion enacts chemical/electrochemical reactions that degrade and gradually destroy materials or components within a functional environment.  The outcome can be dangerous and costly to repair.  

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Tags: parylene, parylene coating process, parylene properties

Dielectrical Performance and Strength of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 16, 2019 @ 08:00 AM

A primary function of all conformal coatings is maintaining sufficient insulation and avoiding dielectric breakdown while protecting printed circuit boards (PCBs) and related electronic assemblies. Providing a completely homogeneous coating surface, parylene (XY) conformal coatings are exceptionally corrosion-resistant, dense and pinhole-free. Among other performance advantages, ultra-thin XY protective films offer superior dielectric properties. Dielectric substances maintain electrical insulation, simultaneously transmitting electricity without conduction. They have the potential to store energy because they support electrostatic fields that release only low levels of thermal energy.

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, dielectric strength

Diamond MT Announces New Coating Center in Melbourne, FL

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 09, 2019 @ 08:00 AM

Company is looking to serve the aerospace, defense, and medical markets in Florida with the new location.

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating spray, parylene for aerospace

Moisture Protection of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 28, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

Conformal coatings primary purpose is protecting the performance of highly sophisticated electronics such as printed circuit boards (PCBs), sustaining their functionality through often unfriendly operating conditions.  Among the most important coating-requirement is safeguarding PCBs from the negative impact of moisture incursion.  Sources are many.  Liquidized obstacles to appropriate assembly function can result from unwanted contact with acid rain, aggressive solvents, atmosphere pollutants, chemicals, fog, high humidity, intermittent immersion, persistent rain, snow, salt water/mist and wet sprays of any kind. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, parylene thickness

Dry Film Lubricity of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 21, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

Chemically inert parylene (Poly-para-xylylene/XY) conformal film is often selected because its micron-thin protective films generate precise coating uniformity, regardless of substrate topography.  To this extent, XY far exceeds the capacities of liquid materials – resins of acrylic, epoxy, silicone or urethane – for a wide range of coating assignments.  It is true that pre-synthesized liquid coatings are easier to apply.  However, their conformal films are dimensionally thicker, making them difficult to position in constricted operating spaces.  Liquids are also generally less resistant to contaminant incursion and other problems that interfere with reliable performance of printed circuit boards (PCBs), and most other contemporary electronics, including biomedical implants.

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, lubricious coatings

A Guide to Parylene Temperatures

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 07, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

A specialized chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process attaches conformal coatings composed parylene (XY) to substrates.  CVD uniformly encapsulates all exposed substrate surfaces as a gaseous monomer; completely eliminating wet coatings’ liquid phase and need for post-deposition curing.  Synthesizing in-process, CVD polymerization requires careful monitoring of temperature levels throughout

Beneficial thermal properties of XY protective coatings include reliable performance through an exceptional range of temperatures.  Parylene is available in variety of material formats, prominently Types C, N, F, D and AH-4.  Each has a particular range of properties that determine its optimal uses.  Types C and N exhibit faster deposition rates than other parylenes, making them useful for a wider range of coating functions.  However, operating temperature is a significant determinant of use:  Much depends on chemical composition. 

  • Used more frequently than other XY varietals, Parylene C is a poly-monochoro para-xylene.  It is a carbon-hydrogen combination material, with one chlorine group per repeat-unit on its main-chain phenyl ring.  In oxygen-dominated atmospheres, C conformal films regularly provide reliable assembly security at temperatures of 100° C (212° F/water’s boiling point) for 100,000 hours (approximately 10 years).  C is suggested for use in operating environments reflecting these temperature conditions.  Chemical, corrosive gas, moisture, and vapor permeability remain consistently low.  C generates exceptional vacuum stability, registering only 0.12% total weight-loss (TWL) at 49.4° C/10-6 torr (1 torr = 1/760 SAP (standard atmospheric pressure, 1 mm Hg).   C can also be effective at temperatures below zero, to -165º C.
  • With a completely linear chemical format, Parylene N is the most naturally-occurring of the parylene series.  Used less regularly than Type C, N is highly crystalline; each molecule consists of a carbon-hydrogen combination.  N’s melting point of 420° C is greater than most other XY types.  Vacuum stability is high, registering TWL-levels of 0.30% at 49.4° C, and 10-6 torr.  These properties encourage higher temperature applications.  Compared to other XY varietals, N’s low dielectric constant/dissipation values also recommend uses with assemblies and parts subjected to higher levels of unit vibration during operation.  N’s electrical/physical properties are not noticeably impacted by cycling from -270º C to room temperature, adding to its versatility.  
  •  Parylene F has fluorine atoms on its aromatic ring.  Possessing aliphatic -CH2- chemistry, F’s superior thermal stability is attributed to this aliphatic C-F bond, compared to Type C’s C-C bond.   Better thermal stability, and reduced electrical charge/dielectric constant expand its use for ILD (inner layer dielectric) applications, such as those for ULSI (ultra large-scale integration), where a single chip can incorporate a million or more circuit elements.   F is a good choice for many microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)/nanotech (NT) solutions. 
  • Originating from the same monomer as Type C, Parylene D’s chemical composition contains two atoms of chlorine in place of two hydrogen atoms.  Like Type C, D conformal films can perform at 134° C (273° F), dependably securing assembly performance in oxygen-dominated environs for 10 years, at a constant 100° C.  Parylene F resists higher operating temperatures and UV light better than C or N.  
  • Parylene AF-4’s melting point is greater than 500° C.  It survives at higher temperatures/UV-exposure better than other parylenes for long durations because it possesses CF2 units, situated between its polymer-chain rings.  
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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, parylene C, parylene f, parylene af-4, parylene d, parylene temperature

Does Parylene Make my Product Waterproof?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 24, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

Protecting printed circuit boards (PCBs) and similar electronics from the incursion of water is an essential responsibility of parylene (XY) conformal coating.  Suitable XY permeation barriers assure no form of liquid passes through to underlying components and that the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) is minimal.  WVTR measures the level of water vapor migration through the applied barrier film, in terms of area and time.  Optimal WTVR ratings are represented by lower numerical values.  In comparison to liquid coatings, parylene typically provides lowest-level values, indicating better moisture barrier provision.  

Acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane coatings can be more quickly affected by water, its vapor, and other sources of moisture, such as: 

  • acid rain,
  • mists of other airborne pollutants,
  • salt-air and
  • chaotic weather.
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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, parylene uniformity

Is Parylene a Nanocoat?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 17, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

          As the electrical components used to power printed circuit boards (PCBs) grow smaller, conventional conformal films become less effective for coating them.  Ongoing development of microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) and nano technology (NT), has little room for the thicker conformal films provided by liquid materials, such as acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane.   Nanocoats (NCs) are increasing in prominence, frequently surpassing micro-thin parylene (XY) for many MEMS/NT purposes.  

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, nano coating

Is Parylene Hydrophobic?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 10, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

Hydrophobic Basics and Hydrophilicity

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties

Does Parylene Prevent Abrasion Damage?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 06, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

 Unlike liquid coatings – acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane – parylene (XY) does not use wet method application.  It can neither be brushed or sprayed onto substrate surfaces, nor will immersion – soaking the substrate in a bath of coating material – work.  In addition, XY’s:

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, parylene inpsection

Top 5 Myths of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jun 08, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

Although parylene (XY) is a well-recognized and often used conformal coating, misconceptions about what it is and can do are common.  These mistaken beliefs interfere with true understanding of parylene’s uses.  Five of the most consistent misconceptions – and appropriate corrective information – should clear things up.

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, parylene disadvantages

Parylene Barrier Properties

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jun 01, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

Permeation barriers for electronic devices are essential to assure their ongoing performance through a wide range of operational environments.  Polymer flexible conformal coatings provide good barrier protection, protecting device substrates from unwanted incursion by solid contaminants, chemicals, gaseous permeation and liquid water or vaporous forms of moisture.  Permeability reduction improves with enhanced coating adhesion, minimizing the surface’s  

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, conformal coating properties

What can be Coated: Conformal Coatings and Parylene Compared

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 23, 2018 @ 08:02 AM

Conformal coatings are used to protect printed circuit boards (PCBs) from dust, humidity/moisture, mildew/mold, temperature extremes, and other elements whose prolonged contact might interfere with assembly function. Coatings also enhance electrical clearance-tolerance, while safeguarding PCB components from contamination (particulate or otherwise), corrosive materials, and mechanical stress.

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Tags: parylene, conformal coatings, conformal coating applications

Review and Summary of Michael Osterman’s “Effectiveness of Conformal Coat to Prevent Corrosion of Terminals”

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Feb 23, 2018 @ 07:28 AM

Originally published in the IPC Proceedings, the article “Effectiveness of Conformal Coat to Prevent Corrosion of Terminals“ was published online by circuit insight (http://www.circuitinsight.com/programs/54223.html). Author Michael Osterman is affiliated with the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, University of Maryland (College Park, MD).

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Tags: parylene

Different Coatings for Electronics

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 26, 2018 @ 07:18 AM

The value of polymeric conformal coatings for protecting printed circuit boards (PCBs) from functional retardants like dust, corrosion, moisture, and temperature fluctuations is well-known. What may be less known is, that as the electrical components used in PCBs become smaller, traditional conformal films are commensurately less effective for certain coating purposes. With the rise of microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) and nano technology, nanocoats are increasing in prominence, in many cases surpassing even micro-thin parylene not-liquid coatings in utility for MEMS/nano applications.

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Tags: parylene, nano coating

Ruggedization and Conformal Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 05, 2018 @ 07:35 AM

Conformal coatings are non-conductive dielectric film-coverings applied over printed circuit boards (PCBs) to protect them from damage caused by chemical incursion, corrosion, current-leakage, dirt/dust, extreme temperatures, fungus, moisture, rain, salt-spray, wind and persistent, intensive vibrations both within and external to the device. These failure mechanisms can soon lead to PCB malfunction and eventual breakdown. Rugged coatings’ exceptional performance durability and versatility protect delicate, finely-tuned components.

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Tags: acrylic conformal coating, parylene, parylene conformal coating, rugged electronics, ruggedization

Automotive Conformal Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 15, 2017 @ 08:00 AM

Long used to safeguard printed circuit boards (PCBs) and other essential automotive electronics from harsh operating environments, conformal coatings’ importance in auto-design/manufacture has never been greater. Fragile electronic components and the paths between them require protection for PCBs to perform reliably. Conforming to PCBs’ topographies, coatings insulate assembly components, safeguarding specialized electronics’ functional integrity through extreme operating conditions.

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Tags: parylene, silicone conformal coating, Automotive conformal coatings

Paralene, Paralyne, or Parylene: Correctly Spelling and Using This Superior Conformal Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 01, 2017 @ 08:01 AM

Accidentally discovered in 1947, by chemist Michael Szwarc, the polymer parylene originally bore his name, and was known for a brief period known as Szwarcite. Working to thermally decompose the solvent p-xylene at temperatures exceeding 1000 °C, Szwarc identified the monomer para-xylylene di-iodide as the only product resulting when para-xylylene was reacted with iodine.

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, parylene deposition, parylene C

Military Conformal Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 24, 2017 @ 09:00 AM

 

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Tags: acrylic conformal coating, parylene, urethane conformal coating, rugged electronics, COTS, ruggedization, military electronics

Best Electronics Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 17, 2017 @ 08:01 AM

Available in five basic material types, conformal coatings can be readily adapted as protective, insulating films for electronics. However, there can be some confusion about which type is best-suited for a specific use. Clearly defining the performance parameters for the component[s] to-be-coated helps coordinate the conformal film material with a unit’s functional requirements. Accurate assessment of environmental conditions like anticipated levels of corrosion, contact with foreign particulates, expected concentrations of moisture/salt spray, temperature fluctuations and vibrational range determine which coating type is best-suited to your electronics’ applications. Without appropriate protection, printed circuit boards (PCBs) and similar electronics will not survive harsh environments, and malfunction.

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Tags: acrylic conformal coating, parylene, silicone conformal coating, urethane conformal coating, rugged electronics, electronics, epoxy conformal coating, ruggedization, conformal coating selection, electronic conformal coatings

Is Parylene a Conformal Coating?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 10, 2017 @ 08:06 AM

If, for some reason, you are told parylene is NOT a conformal coating, simply because it has no liquid phase of application, just walk away. And maybe have yourself a good laugh. For, as you may already know, parylene has repeatedly proven itself to be the most definitive of conformal coatings, for a variety of reasons, including:

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Tags: parylene, conformal coatings, conformal coating selection

4 Aerospace Applications of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 03, 2017 @ 07:49 AM

Superior to liquid coatings like acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane, parylene conformal films offer unparalleled protection for aerospace printed circuit boards (PCBs) and related electronic assemblies. Their complete encapsulation conforms entirely to all device surfaces – flat, round, creviced or edged, while adding almost no weight to the covered device.

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, UV light and parylene, parylene af-4, parylene for aerospace

Selecting a Parylene Conformal Coating Service Provider

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 27, 2017 @ 08:04 AM

Selecting the best material/application method for your coating assignment prolongs assembly service-life and promotes optimal performance. The conformal coating industry is highly competitive, with competent providers available throughout the country. Compared to liquid resin coating materials – acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane – the polymer parylene generates superior conformal coating, but is more complex and expensive.

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Tags: parylene, parylene coating service, parylene coating companies

Where to Buy Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 28, 2017 @ 07:38 AM

Materially, parylene is the most distinctive of the major conformal coatings.  But just how does it differ from liquid coatings -- acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane??  

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Tags: parylene, parylene deposition, parylene dimer

Lubricious Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 14, 2017 @ 07:37 AM

Contributing to good performance for internal medical appliances, lubricity is a conformal coating’s ability to lower operational friction that might retard its function and endanger patient health.  Lubricious coatings offer essential protection for appliances like cardiac-assist devices (CADs), catheters, elastomers, guidewires, and stents.  Compared to an uncoated device, lubricious films can reduce frictional forces by more than 90%, dramatically decreasing potential harm caused by excessive insertion-force or internal puncture damage.  This relative ease of use is important for implants and similar devices that require navigation throughout the patient’s vascular system or other internal structure; otherwise, patients can suffer from abrasion generated between the device surface and blood vessel walls. 

Coefficient of Surface Friction

The degree of physical resistance a device demonstrates is numerically expressed by a coating’s coefficient of friction (µ), which quantifies:

Static friction (µs) occurs when an object moves across a stationary surface; kinetic friction (µk) results for two objects simultaneously in motion, moving across each other.  Conformal coatings are used in both circumstances, especially for medical implants with moving MEMS/nano-tech components.

Where higher-level surface lubricity is sought, lower µ-values are the objective; they signify lessened frictional resistance, minimizing non-release, dry-sticking challenges that interfere with devices’ performance.  For instance, a µ-value of 1 indicates an equal quantity of force is needed to either lift an object, or slide it across a level surface; these calculations compare an object’s weight to the total force required to make it move.  Most everyday objects and materials have a coefficient between 0 and 1; values closer to 1 are not feasible for medical purposes.  For medical devices, a µ-value:

  • ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 is ideal,
  • but remains difficult to achieve
  • for application to the expansive degree of metallic and polymeric substrates used for medical appliances,
  • which require highly-specified levels of abrasion resistance and non-thrombogenic properties,
  • in addition to biocompatibility and lubricity.

Appropriate safety standards also need to be met.

Much depends on the materials comprising the touching surfaces.  Conformal coatings like Teflon (PTFE) and parylene, which provide high-level lubricity, maintain that level for a prolonged operational duration, making them very useful for specialized medical applications.

Properties of Reliable Coating Lubricity

Lubricated surfaces have lower levels of friction.  Wet hydrophilic coatings amass water as a source of lubricity, applied by liquid methods such as dipping or spraying the film substance onto substrates.  Applied to catheters or guidewires, they temporarily minimize development of thrombosis.  However, their lubricious function decreases with time, dissociating or dissolving from the matrix surface, leaving particulates in tissue or the bloodstream, endangering patient health.  Thus, they are less reliable long-term than hydrophobic coatings   

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, Medical conformal coatings, medical device coating, lubricious coatings

Solvent Use in Parylene Deposition

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 26, 2017 @ 07:32 AM

For various reasons, even people familiar with the variety of existing conformal coatings, their strengths, weaknesses and respective use often assume that the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process used for parylene films incorporates a solvent, as an integral component of the procedure.  This is false, for the reasons detailed below.

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, conformal coating solvents, solvents

Which Conformal Coating Is Right for Me?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 19, 2017 @ 07:30 AM

          The value of polymeric conformal coatings for protecting printed circuit boards (PCBs) from functional retardants like dust, corrosion, moisture, and temperature fluctuations has been well-documented.  Conforming to the physical configurations of the exposed face of the PCB, conformal coating:

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Tags: acrylic conformal coating, parylene, conformal coating, silicone conformal coating, urethane conformal coating

Solvent Resistance of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 12, 2017 @ 07:25 AM

The parylene variants are resistant to solvents and protect substrates solvents.  This high level of security is maintained through temperatures of 150° C, seldom encountered in the actual use of PCBs or related electronics.  These properties are largely a development of the unique molecular structure of parylene polymers, rendering them:

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, conformal coating solvents, solvents

Ruggedizing UAV Electronics with Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 05, 2017 @ 07:37 AM

The acronym UAV stands for an unmanned aerial vehicle, an aircraft piloted by remote control or onboard computers.  UAVs are an integral element of America’s unmanned aircraft system (UAS), consisting of three basic components:

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Tags: parylene, rugged electronics, COTS, ruggedization, military electronics

Protecting Solar Panel Electronics with Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 28, 2017 @ 07:36 AM

Like any other renewable energy technology, electronics for solar (photovoltaic) panels are necessary for transforming, transmitting, and monitoring the system.  Unfortunately, system electronics can be fragile, and frequently are the panel’s weakest link.  Converting the sun’s light to electricity, solar panels have demonstrated their utility in numerous operational contexts.  The basic operational unit of panels, the solar cells themselves, can be used to power small scale products like calculators, re-chargeable batteries or watches; full panels can be adapted to a range of larger level operations, like powering homes, lighting systems or water treatment plants.

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Tags: parylene, parylene applications, parylene solar panels

Repairing Parylene Delamination

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 21, 2017 @ 07:37 AM

Applied as a conformal coating through a unique chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, parylene provides micron-thin, resilient barrier protection for an exceptional range of electrical assemblies.  In comparison to liquid coatings -- acrylic, epoxy, silicon, urethane -- parylene is the coating-of-choice for protecting printed circuits boards (PCBs) and medical devices.  It’s films negate the impact of gravity and surface tension during the coating process; . 

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Tags: parylene, parylene adhesion, parylene disadvantages, parylene delamination, parylene issues

Batch Size Considerations for Parylene Production

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 14, 2017 @ 07:35 AM

The parylenes consist of a range of para-xylylene polymers whose desirable physical and electrical properties support expansive utilization as conformal coatings for electronic and medical devices  Parylene films are applied to substrates via a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, which deposits monomeric parylene vapor homogeneously and deeply into the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and related assemblies/components. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, parylene deposition, parylene disadvantages

Cost of Parylene Dimer

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 07, 2017 @ 07:32 AM

Perhaps the most reliable of the conformal coatings, parylene (para-xylylene di-iodide) is also one of the more expensive coating options.  Production costs typically encompass three primary expense categories -- raw materials, labor, and lot volume.  Of the three, labor expenses are generally the most costly, but raw materials can add significantly to production overhead; materials’ costs can be largely attributed to the raw parylene dimer required to make conformal coatings.   

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Tags: parylene, parylene dimer, parylene C, parylene n, parylene af-4

Parylene Protection of Wearable Devices

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 31, 2017 @ 07:26 AM

Wearable devices have become familiar, ever more an integral component of everyday life, with expanded uses for many conventional activities.  Advanced med-tech -- ranging in format from external exercise monitors to implanted cardiac pumps, defibrillators and deep-brain sensors –- represent only a fraction of wearable medical devices currently applied for healthcare and treatment.  Smartphones and watches can be found everywhere; smart fabrics are used with increasing frequency for clothing and textiles.   Wearables reflect the expanding scope of the Internet of Things in most areas of human endeavor. 

          As use of wearables grows, manufacturers try to determine the optimal mix of form, function and technology that will encourage further consumer/ professional application of the devices.  In healthcare, wearables provide a range of status indicators (heart rate, physical activity levels, etc.) that monitor individual’s engagement of healthful (or unhealthy) activities.  In addition to focusing on improving their functional technology, battery life and consumer fashion, the need to safeguard wearables performance is a prominent concern.  All wearable devices are informed by technologies that need conformal protection for and from their functional environments.  Parylene films are the most appropriate choice for protection in just about every case. 

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Tags: parylene, MEMS, IoT, wearables, sensors

Parylene and Arathane 5750:  Low Outgassing Conformal Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 17, 2017 @ 07:35 AM

Outgassing occurs when previously adsorbed or occluded gases or water vapor are released from some material.  With respect to protective conformal coatings, outgassing encompasses the discharge of gases previously confined within a high-frequency printed circuit board (PCB) or similar assembly material, often resulting in functional difficulties. 

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Tags: parylene, NASA conformal coating, NASA-STD 8739.1A, arathane 5750

Types of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 10, 2017 @ 07:34 AM

          Applied in a gaseous form to component surfaces through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, parylene (Poly-para-xylylene) films protect printed circuit boards (PCBs) and similar electrical assemblies.  Gaseous CVD application supports efficient coating of complex component surfaces characterized by crevices, exposed internal areas, or sharp edges.  Depending on the specific use, parylene conformal coatings can be effective in the range of 0.1 - 76 microns' thickness, far finer than competing coating materials.  Equally as strong, adaptable and versatile parylene protects substrates with

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Tags: parylene, parylene C, parylene n, parylene f, parylene af-4, parylene d

What Solvent Breaks Down Parylene?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 03, 2017 @ 07:21 AM

While parylene provides a reliable, versatile conformal coating, it can require removal.  When circumstances necessitate removal of liquid coatings – acrylic, epoxy, silicone or urethane – a wide range of chemical solvents can be used to detach the film from the underlying substrate.  No single chemical material/process is equally successful for all uses, but solvent processes are employed most frequently because they do the least damage to printed circuit boards (PCBs) and their components.  Such is not the case with parylene. 

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating solvents, solvents, parylene safety

Nano Coating vs Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Feb 24, 2017 @ 08:00 AM

Although its basic component is remarkably small – with 25,400,000 nanometers included in just one inch(!!) -- nanotechnology encompasses a growing, interdisciplinary field with an unlimited future.  Nanowires and nanotubes are used in transistors for printed circuit boards (PCBs) and associated electronic assemblies.  Bio-nanobatteries, capacitators, LCDs, and microprocessors represent just a few nano-applications, which include uses for aerospace, agricultural, automotive, consumer, industrial, medical, military and oceanic products. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, conformal coating, parylene disadvantages, nano coating

Nano Coating and Conformal Coating:  A Functional Comparison

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Feb 03, 2017 @ 07:37 AM

The engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale, nanotechnology encompasses management of individual atoms, combined into effective working units, often complex as machines.   Yielding advantages like enhanced chemical reactivity and strength than larger-scale structures, they offer greater control of the light spectrum and weigh significantly less.  Incredibly small, one nanometer is a billionth of a meter (10-9 of a meter) -- one inch equals 25,400,000 nanometers; more illustratively, a sheet of newspaper is 100,000 nanometers thick.  

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, nano coating

Parylene Masking: Materials and Methods

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 06, 2017 @ 07:45 AM

Parylene deposition takes place at the molecular level.  Applied at room temperature through CVD processing, the typical thickness of parylene conformal film is in the microns-range. 

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating masking, parylene masking, masking boots

Parylene Protects Stents

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 16, 2016 @ 07:48 AM

Biocompatible parylene conformal coatings provide superior protection for medical stents.  They represent an enabling technology consistently applied to medical devices of all types for 35 years, to diminish problems stemming from surface microporosity and consequent biofluid corrosion after implant.  Providing a reliable barrier to chemicals and moisture, parylene’s static and dynamic coefficients of friction are comparable to those of Teflon.

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Tags: parylene, Medical conformal coatings, medical parylene, medical parylene uses, medical devices, bio-medical, medical device coating

Parylene Coating Nitinol

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 09, 2016 @ 07:24 AM

A metal alloy of nickel (Ni) and titanium (Ti), nitinol (NiTi) exhibits the properties of shape memory and superelasticity, which make it very useful for adaptation to conformal coatings.  However, like parylene, nitinol is often difficult and expensive to produce; the extreme reactivity of the alloy’s titanium component requires exceptionally tight compositional control during combination and manufacture.  

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Tags: parylene, medical parylene, medical devices, medical device coating

Updates on Conformal Coating and Tin Whiskers

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 28, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

            Not completely understood, electrically conductive tin whiskers are crystalline structures between 1-2 millimeters (mm) that can grow from surfaces where tin is used as a final finish; surfaces finished with electroplated tin are particularly susceptible to whisker growth.  Although their occurrence was originally documented during the 1940s, no real solution has yet been devised to prevent their development, which may reach 10 mm in some cases.  This is unfortunate because tin whiskers have the capacity for generating arcing and short circuits between electrical elements of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and related electronic equipment.    

Tin Whiskers:  Their Origin and Impact

Physically, tin whiskers result from the spontaneous growth of tiny, filiform hairs or tendrils upon tin surfaces.  These structures can create electrical paths, often within the presence of compressive stress during component operation.  Because they usually develop in a functional environment that supports short circuits or arcing, tin whiskers don't need to be airborne to damage electronics.  Among other problems, the four main risks with tin whiskers are:

  • Stable short circuits in low voltage, high impedance circuits. 
  • Transient short circuits may develop where tin whiskers span tightly-spaced circuit elements maintained at different electrical potentials.
  • Metal vapor arcs result when a whisker-short occurs in a high-current/voltage environment. They are perhaps the most destructive of electronic system failures attributed to tin whiskers.
  • Contamination from debris resulting from tin whisker presence can interfere with component performance.

Other adverse consequences of tin whiskers include:

  • Behaving like miniature antennas in fast digital circuits or at frequencies above 6 GHz, generating a negative impact on circuit impedance and stimulating reflections.
  • Causing failures in relays, a source of deep concern for relay-functions as important as those for nuclear power facilities.
  • In outer space (or any vacuum), tin whiskers can short circuit high-power components, ionizing and potentially conducting hundreds of amperes of current, exponentially increasing the short circuit’s damage.
  • Tin whiskers have caused malfunction and recall of medical pacemakers.
  • Whiskers located in computer disk drives can break, resulting in bearing failures or head crashes.

Conformal Coatings Mitigate the Effects of Tin Whiskers

Selecting a tin whiskers’ mitigation strategy is important; because the source of their growth is unknown, they cannot be entirely eliminated.  Although ceramic coatings have proven successful, conformal films made from polymeric compounds such as vapor-deposited parylene, or wet application acrylic and urethane, deflect whiskers away from the coating surface.  For instance, studies conducted by NASA seeking tin whisker control for space craft have shown urethane conformal coatings successfully mitigate tin whisker growth.   In addition, some acrylic wet coatings, such as HumiSeal 1B31, also mitigate tin whisker’s problems.  For various reasons, other conformal coatings -- epoxy, and silicone – are less effective minimizing the development of tin whiskers and their impact on PCB performance.

Perhaps the most effective conformal coating for alleviation of tin whisker related issues is parylene.   Deposited in gaseous form, through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, parylene seeps deep into substrate surfaces, penetrating spaces as minute as 0.01mm.  In doing so, it forms a pinhole-free protective film that is ultra-thin but exceptionally durable.  Chemically inert and of high tensile strength, parylene retains its stability throughout a wide range of temperatures.  Because it can be applied at room temperature, parylene application is stress-free.  These properties combine to support superior mitigation of tin whiskers.

. However they are applied, conformal coatings create a physical barrier over electronic components that stops tin whisker damage.  Conformal coatings:

  • Form a protective film that safeguards assembly circuitry and components, physically separating them from each other.
  • Substantially diminish tin whiskers bridging between the separated components.
  • Lower whiskers’ capacity to generate arcing and shorts.

Conclusion

Tin whiskers can generate arcing and short circuits leading to systemic failures in PCBs and similar electrical assemblies, significantly damaging and otherwise altering their performance expectations.  Vital devices, equipment and facilities such as pacemakers, power plants, and even satellites have had their function diminished by the presence of tin whiskers.  Determining methods for preventing or slowing tin whisker growth is difficult because:

  • outside of some evidence they are the product of mechanically- and thermally-induced stresses,
  • the exact mechanism behind their development is not fully understood.

Where they develop, mitigation of tin whiskers is essential to limiting their impact on assembly performance.  Conformal compound coatings such as parylene, and to a lesser extent acrylic and urethane, can stop tin whiskers from;

  • penetrating an applied protective barrier,
  • bridging electrical components and
  • creating arcing or a short.

While it is impossible at the moment to completely prevent the occurrence of tin whiskers, their mitigation with conformal coatings will dramatically limit whisker growth and equipment damage.  Vapor-deposited parylene and wet coatings such as acrylic and urethane, provide generally good tin whisker defense.  Other traditional wet conformal coating materials such as epoxy and silicone are mostly ineffective as protection against the development and effect of tin whiskers.   

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, tin whiskers, tin whisker mitigation

How Parylene Protects Automotive Electronics

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 21, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

High-tech electronic systems increasingly regulate automotive management functions for emissions’ controls, fuel systems, fluid monitoring, lighting, and powertrain mechanics, frequently comprised of miniaturized, multi-layer MEMS/Nano packages.  Systems’ survival in hostile vehicular environments typified by condensation, corrosive fluids and vapors, excessive temperatures, humidity and prolonged UV exposure is partially assured by protective conformal coating.  

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Tags: parylene, Automotive conformal coatings, parylene applications, parylenec

How to Choose Between Potting and Conformal Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 14, 2016 @ 07:31 AM

            Protection of printed circuit boards (PCBs) is most often achieved with either potting or conformal coating.  The selection of which method to use depends upon the PCB’s purpose and how much protection it requires.  Potting offers the strongest shielding barrier, but is also affected by a range of operational disadvantages that can offset its functional benefits.  Conformal coatings generate reliable barrier protection, which frequently circumvent the problems inherent in potting.  This is particularly the case with parylene, a non-liquid conformal coating. 

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, potting, conformal coating types

Different Types of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 07, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Parylene Varietals:  Matching Material to Purpose

A common generic name for Poly-para-xylylene, parylene forms a protective plastic film when applied to substrate surfaces.  Application is achieved through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in a vacuum, as a gas to targeted substrate surfaces.

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Tags: parylene, parylene cost, parylene C, parylene applications, parylene n, parylene f, parylene af-4

Repairing Parylene Coated PCBs

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 30, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Parylene’s CVD method of application generates exceptionally lightweight yet durable conformal coatings, with superior barrier properties.  Compared to liquid processes, the effects of gravity and surface tension are negligible, so there is no bridging, thin-out, pinholes, puddling, run-off or sagging.

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Tags: parylene, parylene removal, parylene rework

Disadvantages of Using Parylene on Electronics

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 23, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Despite parylene’s numerous benefits as a conformal coating, it has several disadvantages that should be recognized before it is used.  Failure mechanisms that can emerge from parylene coatings have limited its wider scale application in comparison to liquid conformal films such as acrylic, epoxy, silicon, and urethane.  In many situations, wet coatings can provide better performance and lower cost (or both) for many applications

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, parylene removal, parylene disadvantages, parylene issues

Safely Removing Parylene Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 16, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Despite conformal coatings’ ability to dependably protect substrate surfaces of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and related electrical components, problems can sometimes occur which compel their removal.  Chemical removal, which does the least damage to PCBs, is fine for wet coating substances like acrylic, epoxy, silicon and urethane.   Chemical removal methods are far less successful for parylene, despite the use of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for its film application. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene removal, parylene rework

The Cost of Parylene Coating vs. Other Conformal Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 09, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Due to its excellent ability to stop the passage of gases, liquids, or radiation onto circuit board components, parylene is often considered to be the ultimate conformal coating for the protection of devices, components, and surfaces in many industries.

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Tags: parylene, parylene cost, conformal coating costs, parylene costs

Ruggedizing COTS Electronics with Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 26, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Parylene Coatings and COTS Electronics

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Tags: parylene, rugged electronics, COTS, ruggedization

Is Parylene Safe?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 12, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Application of parylene’s xylylene monomer employs a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process implemented under a vacuum.  Unlike wet coating application methods – brushing, dipping, spraying, etc. – parylene CVD is not line-of-sight.  Because the vaporous monomer envelopes all sides of the assembly being coated, appropriate process control allows vacuum deposition of an entirely conformal coating, one that penetrates deep into any crevices, rivulets, or sharp edges and points that exist on the assembly’s surface.  The resultant parylene film is insulating, ultra-thin, and pinhole-free, exhibiting superior protective barrier qualities and very low moisture permeability.

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Tags: parylene, parylene deposition, parylene uniformity, medical parylene, medical device coating, parylene safety

Five Common Causes of Parylene Failure

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 05, 2016 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene Conformal Coatings

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Tags: parylene, parylene adhesion, parylene disadvantages, medical device coating, parylene delamination, parylene issues

How to Estimate Parylene Coating Costs

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 29, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Often considered the ultimate conformal coating, Parylene is well suited to protect many types of products and devices.

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Tags: parylene, parylene cost, parylene process, parylene price

Common Parylene Problems

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 15, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

In addition to cracking, a range of associated issues may interfere with successful coating of parylene films.  Because it is applied via CVD, parylene generates a structurally continuous film covering a PCB or similar assembly.  In CVD, the interaction of vapor-phase chemical reactants formulate a non-volatile solid film on a substrate, useful for a variety of applications like corrosion resistance, erosion defense, and high temperature protection. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, parylene rework, parylene disadvantages, parylene issues

What Is the Price of Parylene Conformal Coating?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 08, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Parylene is often considered the ultimate conformal coating for the protection of devices, components, and surfaces in the electronics, instrumentation, aerospace, medical, and engineering industries.

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Tags: parylene, parylene cost, parylene process, parylene dimer, parylene price

Parylene and Silicone Conformal Coatings:  A Comparison

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jun 24, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

One liquid coating type that rivals the use of parylene is silicone conformal coating (Type SR), which cures rapidly, is reliably dielectric and displays exceptional stability across a wide temperature range.  These properties make it parylene’s chief performance competitor, for many purposes.  Further comparison delineates their benefits and disadvantages relative to each other.

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Tags: parylene, silicone conformal coating, type xy, type sr conformal coating

NASA Inspection Criteria for Conformal Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jun 17, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

The Workmanship Standards developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) are essential to assuring reliable performance of the aeronautic, defense and space equipment it uses and monitors.  

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, NASA conformal coating, NASA-STD 8739.1A

How to Keep Parylene Coating Costs Low

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jun 10, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

 

Designers must keep costs in mind when designing a project.

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Tags: parylene, parylene cost, parylene dimer, parylene disadvantages

Parylene C vs Parylene F

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jun 03, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Parylene C is the most widely used parylene type for conformal coatings.  It is classified as a poly-monochoro para-xylene, produced from dimer material, with one chlorine group per repeat unit on its main-chain phenyl ring.  As a conformal coating, Type C can be deposited at room temperature via CVD.  The resulting film exhibits low chemical, moisture, and vapor permeability, making it particularly useful where protection is needed from corrosive gases.  C’s alliance of electrical and physical properties distinguish it uses from those Parylene F, a consequence of their different chemical composition; F has a fluorine atom on its benzene ring, in contrast to C’s chlorine atom. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene C, parylene f

The Impact of Temperature on Parylene Adhesion

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 20, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Basic Thermal Properties of Parylene Conformal Coatings 

CVD-generated parylene combines high thermal stability with a low dielectric constant, minimal moisture absorption, and other advantageous properties which sustain its adhesion to substrate surfaces.  Among the most beneficial of the parylenes’ thermal properties is their ability to function at an exceptional range of temperatures.  Depending on the parylene type, they are operative at temperatures as low as -271º C, and as high as 450º C, representing an ability to perform within a span of 721º C.  

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Tags: parylene, parylene adhesion, silane 1a74

How to Test Parylene Adhesion

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 06, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

The Need for Adhesion Testing

Applied mechanical processes stimulate the binding force between surface molecules required for parylene adhesion to substrates, which is essential to both good parylene performance and assembly/component functionality.  The emergence of conditions characterized by non-adherence and delamination squander parylene’s typically exceptional substrate protection against chemical attack, corrosion and moisture, as well as its superior dielectric insulation (er = 3.1).  

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Tags: parylene, parylene adhesion, parylene adhesion testing

How to Improve Parylene Adhesion to Noble Metals

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 22, 2016 @ 07:00 AM

Characteristics of Noble Metals

Selecting the appropriate pre-treatment procedures is a key factor to this success of parylene adhesion to any substance.  Procedures vary quite considerably, according to the materials designated for conformal coating and substrate.  Chemically inert surfaces like gold, silver and other noble metals, and nonpolar thermoplastics such as parylene, are extremely difficult to bond; they require additional surface treatments besides cleaning.  

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Tags: parylene, parylene adhesion, silane 1a74

Does Parylene Adhere Chemically?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 01, 2016 @ 08:10 AM

            Parylene only adheres to substrates mechanically, and this can require assistance from additive substances; parylene’s chemically-based adherence is nonexistent.  Adhesion is a consequence of molecular attraction stimulating the surface unification of two dissimilar substances; their joining creates a significant physical bond between them.  Of the two primary types of adhesion, chemical adhesion results when a compound joins with another, because they share sufficient mutual chemical interaction to form a bond with each other.  Because parylene is chemically inert, chemical adhesion is impossible; it adheres using the other method -- mechanical adhesion.  Applied mechanical processes can stimulate this binding force between surface molecules.   

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, parylene adhesion

UV-Cure Touchup and Parylene Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 25, 2016 @ 07:39 AM

A photochemical process used to preserve conformal coatings, adhesives, and inks, UV curing generates a variety of value-added properties in comparison to conventional curing techniques.  Applying high-intensity UV light to dry (cure) coatings or other substances, UV curing can provide instant results, increasing production speed while reducing the need for and number of typical set-up and clean-up processes.  Lowered operating costs and increased production capacity are further advantages of UV curing for many coating materials and processes. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene for LEDs, UV light and parylene

Surface Treatments Prior to Parylene Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 11, 2016 @ 08:07 AM

Pre-coating Essentials

Poor parylene adhesion negates many of the coating’s most-valued functional properties, including dielectric strength, and resistance to the effects of chemicals, corrosive agents, and moisture.  Surface treatments that amplify the interface adhesion between the deposited parylene and the coated substrate are therefore highly desirable.  These treatments entail depositing parylene on a clean hydrophobic surface before its chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is enacted.

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Tags: parylene, parylene masking, parylene adhesion, silane 1a74, surface prep

Parylene for LEDs

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 04, 2016 @ 08:00 AM

LED Lifespan as Effected by UV Light

Although LEDS are designed to provide as many as 100,000 hours of illumination under laboratory conditions, they are not nearly as resilient when subjected to persistent real-world, real-time usage.  Sensitive to electrical interference, moisture, UV light, and other persistent sources of physical damage, LEDs require protection to operate at levels anywhere near maximum efficiency.  Of all the conformal coatings available to deliver reliable safeguards on an ongoing basis, none surpasses parylene.

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Tags: parylene, LED conformal coating, parylene for LEDs, UV light and parylene

Causes of Parylene Delamination

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Feb 26, 2016 @ 08:39 AM

Delamination Problems of Parylene Conformal Coatings

Providing a uniform and pinhole-free substrate coating that is ultra-thin, lightweight and durable, parylene coatings completely conform to targeted components and assemblies.  Parylene CVD generates a structurally continuous film that, with appropriate pre-treatment, penetrates deep within substrate surfaces, rather than simply attaching themselves to substrates as liquid-application coatings do.  These provide effective, dielectrically efficient safeguards with coatings as thin as a fraction of a micrometer.   Parylene is chemically and biologically inert and stable, an excellent barrier material to abrasive chemicals, bodily fluids, solvents, liquid water and water vapor.

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Tags: parylene, parylene adhesion, parylene delamination, parylene issues

Does My Product Need to Be Clean Before Conformal Coating?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Feb 19, 2016 @ 08:33 AM

Once you've decided to use conformal coating for your device, a question that often comes up is:

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, cleaning

Should I add UV Trace to Parylene Coating?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Feb 12, 2016 @ 08:00 AM

Conformal Coatings and UV Trace

Conformal coatings provide exceptional protection for printed circuit boards (PCBs) and similar electrical assemblies, through a wide variety of operating circumstances, safeguarding their chemical, electrical, and/or mechanical properties. 

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Tags: parylene, UV trace, UV light and parylene

Parylene Conformal Coatings and UV Light

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Feb 05, 2016 @ 07:54 AM

            Parylene has numerous outdoor applications.  However, a major drawback of most parylene types is limited resistance to direct contact with UV radiation.  Daylight is the most common source of UV light.  Prolonged exposure to its high energy radiation can cause objects extensive surface damage and lead to eventual malfunction of electrical light-generating assemblies within.  

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Tags: parylene, parylene for LEDs, parylene disadvantages, parylene f, parylene af-4

What’s the Difference Between Potting and Conformal Coating?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 22, 2016 @ 09:00 AM

Conformal coatings are a protective, non-conductive dielectric layer that are added to a circuit board or electronic device.

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, potting

Parylene and A-174 Silane

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 15, 2016 @ 07:41 AM

Improving Parylene Adhesion

Parylene provides an entirely conformal, durable, pinhole-free substrate coating of extreme utility for an exceptional range of materials, products and purposes. Despite its many advantages, parylene's chemical structure can actually interfere with the reliable interface adhesion required for optimal performance. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process that generates so many of parylene's benefits also nullifies chemically-based substrate adhesion; only mechanical adhesion is possible.

Implementing optimal adhesion can require surface modification via application of adhesion promoting agents or methods. The materials and processes used for these purposes are largely dependent on the substrate surface and component's specific operational environments and functions. Although most adhesion promotion methods are used prior to CVD, several can be integrated into the coating-process itself, Among the methods of adhesion promotion used with parylene are:

  • Thorough surface-cleaning, which stimulates enhanced adhesion by eliminating accumulated substrate contaminants whose presence can diminish overall coating quality.
  • Heat-treating. for three hours at temperatures of 140°C, beneficially activates longer-term adhesion and insulation.
  • Active, wired devices profit from bilayer component-encapsulation processes.

While these techniques have their uses for parylene adhesion promotion, the chemical monolayer Silane A-174 (3-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane - C10H20O5Si) is used most frequently to modify substrate surfaces and improve parylene adhesion.

The Uses of Silane A-174

Silane A-174's value as an adhesion promoting agent stems largely from its versatility. It can be successfully applied to substrate materials like elastomer, glass, metal, paper, plastic or quartz, among a wide range of surface substances. The A-174 silane molecule develops a robust chemical bond with the substrate, facilitating the improved surface adhesion capacity of parylene’s mechanical property. Optimal parylene adhesion is commonly achieved by a treatment with A-174 silane prior to initiating the CVD process. However, regarding appropriate procedural scheduling:

  • it is recommended that A-174's application be completed after any necessary masking operations have been finished;
  • depending on substrate materials, manual spray, soaking, or vapor phase silane processing techniques may be used to apply A-174.

Download our guide  on Parylene 101

Process Balance

While the silane promotes adhesion, the parylene assures protection. Thus, appropriately proportional intermixtures of silane A-174 and parylene need to be used, in all cases. Corrosion-resistance can be diminished where the relationship between parylene and silane is inexact, causing part and function deterioration from both beneath- and external to the conformal covering. This is especially the case with medical implants, where reliable component function is mandatory, despite being subjected to persistent exposure to often harsh bodily fluids.

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Tags: parylene, parylene adhesion, silane 1a74

Benefits of Conformal Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 08, 2016 @ 08:07 AM

Electronics manufacturers need devices that withstand heat, cold, rain, snow, vibration, fungus, oxidation, and corrosion through decades of operation.

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Tags: acrylic conformal coating, parylene, conformal coating, silicone conformal coating, urethane conformal coating

Implantable Devices and Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 18, 2015 @ 08:40 AM

Implantable Medical Devices and the Uses of Parylene

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Tags: parylene, implantable devices, medical devices, medical device coating

What's the Best Coating for MEMS?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 11, 2015 @ 07:59 AM

Defining MEMS

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Tags: parylene, Parylene and MEMS, MEMS

Ruggedizing Electronics with Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 04, 2015 @ 08:00 AM

Ruggedized Products

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Tags: parylene, rugged electronics, COTS, ruggedization

How Long Does the Parylene Coating Process Take?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 20, 2015 @ 07:39 AM

Parylene Chemistry and Production Requirements

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Tags: parylene, parylene coating process, parylene uniformity

What Chemical Removes Parylene?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 13, 2015 @ 08:07 AM

Removal of Conformal Coatings

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Tags: parylene, parylene removal, parylene rework

Parylene vs Humiseal

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 30, 2015 @ 08:42 AM

The conformal coating process creates a protective barrier for product substrates. The type of coating material used is a consequence of several conditions:

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, HumiSeal 1B31, HumiSeal, Humiseal 1A33

PTFE and Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 23, 2015 @ 08:12 AM

Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

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Best Conformal Coating for Moisture

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 16, 2015 @ 08:28 AM

Protective Conformal Coatings

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Common Parylene Defects

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 25, 2015 @ 10:26 AM

While parylene is an extremely effective conformal coating, its benefits only come into play when it is properly applied. When parylene is either applied incorrectly or is deposited on a surface that is not prepared for adhesion, the coating can become compromised. Luckily, common parylene defects can be identified, planned for and mitigated through proper procedures.

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Tags: parylene, parylene adhesion, parylene disadvantages

What is Parylene used for?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 18, 2015 @ 09:08 AM

Parylene and Conformal Coatings 

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Tags: parylene, MEMS, medical device coating, COTS

Improving Bio-Compatibility with Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 11, 2015 @ 08:39 AM

Parylene Bio-compatibility

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Mastering the Parylene Coating Process

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 04, 2015 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene Deposition  

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How Parylene Improves the Internet of Things

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 28, 2015 @ 09:03 AM

The Growing Internet of Things

The term Internet of Things ( IoT ) describes the expanding interactive capacities of smart networks of processing systems.  Increasingly communicating with each other, they drive enhanced smart automation in many fields, including: 

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Tags: parylene, MEMS, IoT, Internet of Things

How Parylene is Applied Compared to Other Conformal Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 21, 2015 @ 01:45 PM

Overall the generic name parylene describes a distinct collection of polycrystalline and linear organic coating materials with innumerable applications.  The essential basis of today's parylene N, p-xylene, was inadvertently synthesized at England's University of Manchester in 1947The filmy residue resulted after high-temperature heating of compounds of toulene and the xylenes polymerized into para-xylene.  The substance immediately demonstrated an exceptional capacity for generating the fine but resilient surface-covering that characterizes today's range of parylene conformal coatings.  

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Tags: acrylic conformal coating, parylene, parylene deposition

Seven Key Parylene Challenges

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 14, 2015 @ 08:14 AM

Recognition of parylene's excellence as a conformal coating for many product uses has grown along with its application.  However, issues of barrier failure, current leakage, poor processing, and cost limit its further development and use.

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Silicone Conformal Coating vs Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 07, 2015 @ 09:46 AM

Silicone and Parylene conformal coatings are a lot like humans and dogs. At first glance, we are very different from our canine friends. However, we have a lot in common -- noses, two eyes, hearts, dreams. In fact, we share 84 percent of our DNA with Rover (or Spot). So too with the two coatings. While both have some functional differences -- which we'll explore here -- they also have an important similarity. Parylene and Silicone are both some of the best choices for conformal coatings of your company's products.

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Tags: parylene, parylene deposition, silicone conformal coating

Understanding Parylene Deposition

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 31, 2015 @ 08:10 AM

Parylene's deposition process is unique among conformal coatings. Unlike others that start as a liquid, get deposited and dry, it starts as a solid. Parylene coating equipment turns it into a vapor, where it then deposits onto the substrate. This unique four-step method poses some challenges but also brings real advantages.

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Parylene coating vs conformal coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 24, 2015 @ 08:17 AM

Conformal Coatings

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Masking for Parylene Deposition

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 17, 2015 @ 07:15 AM

Masking and Parylene Deposition

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Parylene vs Potting

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 03, 2015 @ 08:16 AM

If you have a printed circuit board or other item that needs protection, you typically have a choice between potting and conformal coating. While potting offers the largest and most powerful barrier against the outside world, it also carries some significant drawbacks. Conformal coating, especially with parylene, also offers a protective barrier, but does it without the challenges that potting poses.

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Printed Circuit Boards and Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jun 26, 2015 @ 08:00 AM

While Parylene can coat just about anything, one of its most common uses is for protecting printed circuit boards. Product engineers specify Parylene because it offers a unique blend of five capabilities.

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Parylene and Wearable Devices

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jun 19, 2015 @ 08:01 AM

Wearables are no longer emerging technology -- they are here. Whether a wearable item is a medical device like an insulin pump, a smart watch or even a finely woven piece of smart fabric, they all have one basic fact in common. All of them contain technologies that need protection from the outside world and, in just about every case; parylene is the most appropriate choice for protection.

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Parylene Dieletric Properties

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jun 05, 2015 @ 08:00 AM

 Basic Dielectrics and Conformal Coatings

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Protecting LEDs with Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 29, 2015 @ 08:00 AM

Light emitting diodes are gradually replacing all other types of lighting. As they move out of consumer electronics and into general purpose applications ,the demands on the technology are shifting. It's relatively easy to keep an LED safe when it is mounted in the front panel of a computer or hidden under a cover on an alarm clock. Protecting it when it is going to be exposed to the elements 24 hours a day, 365 days a year is more challenging.

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Tags: parylene, LED conformal coating, parylene for LEDs

Can parylene be used outdoors?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 22, 2015 @ 07:30 AM

Parylene can be used outdoors. However, it has one drawback that could limit its suitability in some outdoor applications: sunlight can yellow it. With this in mind, product designers specifying a coating for a product to be used where it will be subject to sunlight should carefully consider the coatings pros and cons before specifying it. Frequently, but not always, it remains the best choice.

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Tags: parylene, parylene for LEDs

Parylene vs Urethane Conformal Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 15, 2015 @ 08:16 AM

Parylene and urethane conformal coatings share many characteristics. Both are physically strong, resistant to chemicals and mitigate tin whisker formation. This doesn't mean that the two compounds are interchangeable, though. While parylene offers a unique blend of capabilities, many projects choose urethane because of its cost, strength and other advantages.

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Parylene Adhesion & Cleaning

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 08, 2015 @ 08:12 AM

Parylene Surface Protection

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Best Implantable Device Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 01, 2015 @ 08:41 AM

Implantable devices place a special set of requirements and challenges on their coatings. The moisture and broad mixture of chemicals that are found inside of the body are challenging in and of themselves. However, the body also has needs from the coatings that are placed within it. They need to be non-irritating and inert enough to be harmless. For most applications, the best choice is USP Class VI compliant parylene coatings.

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Tags: parylene, implantable devices, bio-medical, medical device coating

Rugged Devices and Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 24, 2015 @ 09:00 AM

The Need for Rugged Products

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Differences between Parylene and Acrylic Conformal Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 17, 2015 @ 09:00 AM

Parylene and acrylic conformal coatings represent two extremes of the types of compounds you can use to coat printed circuit boards, sensors, or other devices. While acrylic is popular and inexpensive, parylene offers some of the best performance of any coating compound.

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Tags: acrylic conformal coating, parylene

Best Conformal Coating for Humid Environments

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 10, 2015 @ 08:43 AM

Just about every major type of conformal coating provides protection against moisture. If you get a printed circuit board coated with epoxy, acrylic, urethane, silicone or parylene wet, typically all that you have to do is wipe it off. Environments with high humidity pose a different set of challenges. Because moisture is omnipresent in humid environments, the conformal coating doesn't just have to resist water ingress. It also needs to completely seal the coated item. Given this additional requirement, the best choice will usually be either silicone or parylene.

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, silicone conformal coating

Is Parylene Coating Bio-compatible?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 03, 2015 @ 09:27 AM

Parylene is the most bio-compatible conformal coating currently available. Its chemical properties make it a natural for use in medical and biological applications. In addition, some of its general benefits also make it particularly valuable in healthcare applications. Finally, parylene also enjoys a stringent USP Class VI bio-compatibility certification.

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Tags: parylene, medical device coating

How Easy is Parylene to Rework?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 27, 2015 @ 08:32 AM

When it comes to reworking, parylene's strengths are also its biggest drawbacks. In addition to its ability to comprehensively coat substrates, it is also, by design, very challenging to remove. However, "very challenging" and impossible are two different things. Furthermore, good planning strategy before coating can also help to reduce the need for parylene rework.

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Parylene Conformal Coating for Medical Use

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 20, 2015 @ 09:29 AM

Parylene conformal coatings have protected medical device components with an extended range of applications for over 40 years. They offer both patients and medical personnel the most reliable level of uniform, biocompatible device-security for cardio- logical and surgical procedures.  Their value and application proliferate, as technology develops.  

Organic Polymers used as Coatings

The overall generic name parylene designates a unique set of organic polymeric coating materials with innumerable applications.  All commercially applied parylene configurations are polycrystalline and linear in nature. 

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Tags: parylene, medical device coating

5 Common Misconceptions of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Mar 11, 2015 @ 09:11 AM

In the course of our business applying parylene to a range of different products, our clients ask many questions. They also have a few consistent misconceptions. Here are the five biggest ones -- and the facts to clear things up.

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Tags: parylene, parylene C, parylene adhesion, parylene n

Drawbacks of Parylene Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Thu, Mar 05, 2015 @ 02:09 PM

Parylene has a well-deserved reputation as one of the leading choices for conformal coatings. For many applications, it is the best choice. However, there are some real parylene disadvantages, as well. For many applications, other conformal coatings such as acrylic, epoxy, silicone or urethane offer better performance, lower cost or both.

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Tags: parylene, parylene disadvantages

Protecting MEMS with Parylene Coatings: No Small Feat

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Feb 27, 2015 @ 01:08 PM

As engineers continue to seek out the most powerful technologies packed into the smallest footprints possible, the use of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are on the rise. At the forefront of progress in miniaturization, MEMS enable small form factors without sacrificing precision and reliability. In many cases, MEMS technologies even offer an increase in performance over their larger, traditional counterparts. MEMS technologies can also be produced at low cost, owing to the use of semiconductor fabrication methods.

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Parylene C vs Parylene N

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Feb 17, 2015 @ 11:07 AM

Parylene and It's Uses

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Tags: parylene, parylene C, parylene n

Parylene for Defense Applications

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Feb 04, 2015 @ 09:54 AM

What is Parylene?

Parylene is a conformal protective polymer used for coating, first postulated by Michael Szwarc in 1947. His early experiments involved the decomposition of the solvent p-xylene. His worked proved that when the vapors of the p-xylene reacted with iodine, para-xylyene di-iodide was the only resulting product. The reaction produced only a low yield and the process was later made more efficient by William F. Gorham.

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Sterlization of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Jan 06, 2015 @ 08:19 AM

Regardless of the variant, Parylene in general garners a great deal of praise for the many advantages it offers as a protective conformal coating for applications as varied as medical, aerospace, defense, LEDs, and automotive. Chief among the coating’s benefits, however, is that it can withstand common sterilization techniques, such as electron beam (e-beam), gamma, ethylene oxide (EtO), and autoclave.

Like many chemicals, para-xylylene actually comes in several common variants:

  • N. The most basic type of the compound is highly elastic and, as such, is very good at penetrating small areas on components.
  • C. The C variant of the chemical replaces one aromatic hydrogen component with a chlorine atom. It is less elastic and is extremely popular in medical applications, in part due to its high degree of moisture resistance.
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Parylene for Industrial MEMS

Posted by Sean Horn on Thu, Oct 02, 2014 @ 01:42 PM

For contemporary industrial uses, sensors collect and respond to analog information, transforming it to a digital format.  Sensor design for many uses has increasingly relied on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology.  MEMS are semiconductor-made micro-mechanisms, which typically work by deflecting optical signals from input-to-output fibers by deploying movable micro-mirrors.  They demonstrate virtually unlimited potential for an exceptional range of rapidly evolving products for information technology (IT), telecommunications, consumer electronics and automotive engines, among many other purposes.  

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Parylene and Ruggedization

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Jul 29, 2014 @ 08:25 AM

Ruggedized products are conceived for use in severe conditions, environments where excessive moisture or dryness, extreme temperatures, high levels of vibration, wind, or lack of atmosphere are the rule.   Internal components of these specialized products require the same degree of ruggedization as exteriors. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, rugged electronics

Parylene Removal, Rework, and Repair

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Jul 16, 2014 @ 10:03 AM

Parylene's benefits as a conformal coating are well known. It resists heat, cold, moisture, and pressure; salt spray, electricity, and solvents can't permeate it. And while these attributes of parylene contribute to the conformal coating's appeal, they also present distinct challenges, particularly in regards to parylene removal, rework, and repair.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene rework

Parylene: Protecting Life-Enhancing Medical MEMS Technologies

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Jan 15, 2014 @ 11:07 AM

Driving development of such emerging areas as microfluidics, advanced bio-sensing, capsule endoscopy, and personalized medicine, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are enabling an array of breakthroughs that promise to enhance patient care and outcomes.  Protecting sensitive MEMS products from the harsh conditions both inside the body and out is Parylene conformal coating, which is helping to bring these futuristic technologies to fruition.

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Tags: parylene, Medical conformal coatings, Parylene and MEMS, medical parylene

5 Key Properties of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Jan 07, 2014 @ 09:42 AM

Since its discovery in the 1940s, Parylene has skyrocketed to prominence as an ideal conformal coating choice for a range of applications. Given its unique blend of properties, it might seem like an unparalleled conformal coating option. In many ways, it is. Here are five key properties of Parylene that differentiate it from the rest.

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, parylene C

Parylene: Protecting MEMS in the Military

Posted by Sean Horn on Mon, Dec 23, 2013 @ 01:47 PM

Offering sensitivity and performance in a compact package, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have become increasingly prevalent in U.S. military applications over the last few decades and are enabling significant technological advances. As with all things military, however, robust protection of these sensitive electronics is imperative in order to ensure that they can withstand the harsh conditions often found on the battlefield. Conformal coatings such as Parylene can help MEMS-based military technologies withstand conditions such as extreme temperatures, humidity, dust/dirt, chemicals, and rugged terrain.

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Tags: parylene, Parylene and MEMS, parylene applications

Parylene Adhesion to Noble Metals

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Dec 04, 2013 @ 05:17 PM

Parylene adhesion can be tricky to manage. Unlike other coatings that adhere to the surfaces they coat, parylene sticks to itself. This can cause trouble when it needs to be applied to smooth surfaces, like areas made of stainless steel or noble metals like gold or silver. However, since parylene has so many other advantages, it's worth looking into methods to improve adhesion. You can use the product; you just might need an extra step.

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Tags: parylene, parylene adhesion, parylene disadvantages

Parylene and Tin Whiskers

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Nov 26, 2013 @ 08:50 AM

Tin whiskers have long been a frustrating occurrence for those manufacturing and using electronic devices. First discovered in the 1940s, the whiskering of metal has been the cause of serious problems including the damaging of vital and difficult to replace equipment. Finding ways to prevent or slow the growth of whiskers has been a focus of engineers and scientists for quite some time.

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Tags: parylene, tin whiskers, tin whisker mitigation

Parylene: Making a Difference Across Many Markets

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 22, 2013 @ 08:36 AM

Parylene conformal coatings are used in many different industries. With their hardness, chemical inertness and ability to perfectly coat any surface, they have expanded well beyond their original military and aerospace applications. Whether it's a protective coating for an LED or a protective shell around a coronary artery stent, the compound is found in places where you might not expect to find it.

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Tags: parylene, parylene for LEDs, medical parylene

Parylene propels MEMS design

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Nov 06, 2013 @ 08:40 AM

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, MEMS

Conformal Coatings for LED Applications

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Oct 30, 2013 @ 07:58 AM

From front to back, LEDs are improved by conformal coatings. Whether the coating is improving the LED's color accuracy, protecting it from damage or keeping the electronics functioning well, conformal coating of LED electronics extends the suitability of LED technology. Here are the top six ways that conformal coating and LEDs go well together

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Tags: parylene, silicone conformal coating, parylene for LEDs

Ultraviolet (UV) Stability of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Oct 23, 2013 @ 09:48 AM


For all of Parylene's strengths, it has one key drawback—Parylene's resistance to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is limited. Most formulations of Parylene gradually yellow when exposed to the kind of UV light that's produced by the sun. While this isn't a problem when Parylene gets used to conformally coat a printed circuit board that's sealed in a box, it can be a problem when a display made of Parylene-coated LEDs is installed outdoors.

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Tags: parylene, parylene properties, parylene for LEDs

Parylene Removal, Rework, and Repair

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Oct 09, 2013 @ 11:45 AM

Parylene's benefits as a conformal coating are well known. It resists heat, cold, moisture, and pressure; salt spray, electricity, and solvents can't permeate it. And while these attributes of parylene contribute to the conformal coating's appeal, they also present distinct challenges, particularly in regards to parylene removal, rework, and repair.

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Tags: parylene, parylene removal, parylene rework

Cleanliness: The Key to Conformal Coating Success

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Oct 02, 2013 @ 01:44 PM

The quality of a conformal coating job is directly related to the cleanliness of the substrate that is being coated. Clean substrates coat well, and contaminated ones don't. The only way to manage the problem is to inspect and clean the board or other item before applying the coating -- once it's coated, it's essentially too late.

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, cleaning

Conformal Coating for Automotive Applications

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Sep 18, 2013 @ 08:08 AM

More and more, cars aren't just made of steel, aluminum, plastic and silicon. Parylene is becoming one of the most useful tools in an automaker's arsenal. From protecting internal sensors and circuit boards to keeping LED indicator lights bright and color-accurate, Parylene conformal coatings are an important part of protecting today's sensitive automotive electronics.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, MEMS

Diamond-MT Announces Parylene Coating Equipment

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 13, 2013 @ 06:24 AM

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Managing Parylene Adhesion

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Sep 10, 2013 @ 10:39 AM

It is imperative to obtain proper adhesion of the coating to the substrate in order to truly reap the benefits of parylene conformal coating. Poor parylene adhesion, after all, can negate some of parylene's most-prized properties, including corrosion resistance, chemical resistance, moisture resistance, and dielectric strength. So, it's in an engineer's best interest to understand the importance of parylene adhesion and how to obtain it.

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Tags: parylene, parylene coating process, parylene adhesion

Improving Patient Outcomes with Parylene-Coated Stents

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Sep 04, 2013 @ 07:04 AM

Coronary stents are tubular medical implants that serve as a scaffold to open clogged or narrowed arteries in an effort to increase blood flow and reduce the potential for adverse cardiac events such as heart attacks. And providing critical support to these support structures is parylene conformal coating.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, medical parylene, medical devices

Parylene: The Military-Grade Conformal Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 23, 2013 @ 08:21 AM

Military and defense equipment are put to the test and subjected to uniquely harsh conditions on a daily basis. These mission-critical products must be rugged and able to withstand extreme weather and temperatures, exposed forces of gravity that are well above and beyond normal situations, and a range of contaminants such as salt, water, and fungus. Luckily, the application of a parylene conformal coating to relevant electronics can ensure that components are fit for duty in the military and defense industries.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene applications

Parylene Masking Revealed

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Aug 14, 2013 @ 09:07 AM

Whether the application is a medical device, a printed circuit board (PCB), or a light-emitting diode (LED), a parylene conformal coating is typically applied to protect the product. Sometimes, however, the product actually has to be protected from the parylene conformal coating—or at least parts of it do. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene process, parylene deposition, parylene masking

Three Common Medical Applications for Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Jul 30, 2013 @ 09:32 AM

Parylene conformal coating boasts a bevy of benefits and properties that make it an appealing choice for a variety of medical device applications. Chief among parylene’s advantages for medical applications, however, is that it meets USP Class VI and ISO 10993 biocompatibility requirements—a characteristic that is essential for many critical medical products and that other types of conformal coating sometimes lack.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, medical parylene, medical parylene uses, medical devices

Parylene vs Teflon

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Jul 23, 2013 @ 01:20 PM

Plastics and polymers were first being produced, whether on accident or on purpose, in the early 1930s. Dupont's Teflon, or PTFE,  is probably the most widely known polymer because of its uses in cooking as a non-stick coating for pots and pans. While there are lots of other polymers out there, there are only a few that have as many uses as PTFE, one of which is Parylene.

Parylene was developed by a chemist named Michael Szwarc while he was running experiments on chemical bonds between carbon and benzene rings. While heating para-xylene, he discovered a precipitate in his equipment that turned out to be small and tube-like. He correctly identified these tubes as the polymerization of p-xylene. After a brief period known as Szwarcite, Parylene soon found uses in the medical field as an excellent hydrophobic barrier, but has been found to have plenty of other uses in electronics; metal, rubber, and surface protection from corrosion and outside elements; and as a friction reducing coating especially with needles.

PTFE's discovery, on the other hand, was purely accidental. While working with gasses for refrigeration in the Dupont laboratories, Dr. Roy Plunkett thought that a canister containing TFE was not working. After cutting the canister in half, he discovered a white flake that had developed in the tank and correctly guessed that the flake was a polymer. After conducting several tests on the flakes, since TFE was widely thought to be impossible to polymerize, Plunkett discovered that it was insoluble in anything he tried, as well as being completely inert. The first applications for PTFE were on the seals for the atomic bomb, but it also worked as the nosecone for proximity bombs because it is transparent on a radar and resists electricity.

Parylene was the first vapor deposited polymer ever discovered, and because of the vapor deposits and the fact that no solvent or catalyst is used to cause the polymerization it has a one hundred percent yield, which makes it an extremely efficient polymer to manufacture. Because it is hydrophobic and biostable, parylene has been used extremely effectively as a coating for medical tools, instruments, and hoses. It's strong resistance to corrosion make it an excellent metal coating for scalpels, hypodermic needles, and other metallic tools. It also works as a micro barrier since its surface is impermeable above thicknesses of 1.4 nanometers. Its uniformity helps it adhere to sharp edges and points, again pointing to its widespread use in the medical field.

Unfortunately, because of its formation, it cannot be applied through a solvent. This means that the only way to coat an object in parylene is during the production of the polymer which occurs in a vacuum. While the object to be coated remains near room temperature, which aids in the safety of the process, and the coating is universal and uniform, it does mean that the polymer cannot be put into an aerosol can or produced en mass for consumer use.

PTFE can be made in one of two ways, each resulting in a different looking product, but by and large the same end result. With suspension, TFE is polymerized in water and results in the PTFE forming grains, whereas dispersion causes the PTFE to form as a milky paste. Both the paste and grain are processed and used to coat various products. Although PTFE itself is non-toxic, some of the byproducts of the manufacture process are toxic and at high heats the PTFE itself can emit toxic gasses.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, teflon

What is parylene conformal coating?

Posted by Sean Horn on Thu, Jul 18, 2013 @ 07:57 AM

So you'd like to know a little something about parylene conformal coating, but were afraid to ask. You need not be ashamed. The process is so fundamental to electronic manufacturing that it can very easily be taken for granted.

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Tags: parylene, parylene cost, parylene conformal coating, conformal coating

Parylene Coating Companies

Posted by Sean Horn on Thu, May 30, 2013 @ 08:57 AM

While parylene coating companies are not exactly on every street corner, there are certainly a lot more of them than you think!  Below you will find a list of the headquarters for knownNorth American parylene coating companies.  If you do not see your company listed and would like it to be, please do not hesitate to email me.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene coating service, parylene coating companies

Parylene vs Acrylic Conformal Coatings

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Feb 13, 2013 @ 02:34 PM

Parylene and acrylic resins are both conformal coatings.  Most of the similarities stop there.  Because their properties vary so much, they have their own unique uses and capabilities.

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Tags: acrylic conformal coating, parylene, dip coating equipment, parylene cost, parylene conformal coating, parylene coating process

What is the maximum object size for parylene coating?

Posted by Sean Horn on Mon, Feb 11, 2013 @ 11:00 AM

People often wonder if their project can be parylene coated.  While there are huge list of items that can be coated with parylene, there are some limitations.  One of these limitations is size.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene coating process, parylene deposition

Parylene Alternatives

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jan 18, 2013 @ 08:43 AM

Parylene conformal coating is a very robust coating, but sometimes it is not the right fit for a customer’s application for one reason or another.  The entire conformal coating process is based on first identifying the standards to be used and customer’s protection desired.  It would therefore only make sense that there are alternatives to parylene for different conformal coating demands.

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Tags: acrylic conformal coating, parylene, parylene conformal coating, conformal coating, silicone conformal coating, urethane conformal coating

What is type XY conformal coating?

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Jan 09, 2013 @ 12:04 PM

Type xy conformal coating refers to parylene conformal coating.  Parylene gets the type xy from its’ full name, para-xylylene.   It was shortened to parylene and eventually type xy so that it could be grouped with the other conformal coatings (type ar, ur, etc.).

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene deposition, conformal coating thickness, type xy

Parylene Disadvantages

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Oct 17, 2012 @ 09:51 AM

Parylene offers the best protection against solvents of any conformal coating.  It is also brings to the table excellent moisture and gas protection, very high dielectric strength, and is bio-compatible.  Even with all of these benefits, there are still some disadvantages to using parylene versus other conformal coatings.

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Tags: parylene, parylene cost, parylene conformal coating, parylene coating process, parylene properties, parylene adhesion, parylene disadvantages

What is the uniformity of parylene conformal coating?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 14, 2012 @ 10:33 AM

Parylene  is often applied to substrates or materials where there is no room for any voids in the protective coating.  These materials are likely to be placed in harmful chemicals, a moisture packed environment, or even the human body.  These are often mission critical devices which can not allow any environmental factors to alter their performance.  Whenever these devices need this stringent level of protection from the elements, parylene is the only logical choice. 
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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, conformal coatings, conformal coating issues, parylene uniformity

How much does parylene cost?

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Aug 29, 2012 @ 03:15 PM

Everyone loves the barrier properties of parylene.  The resistance to solvents and moisture, incredible dielectric strength, and the completely uniform coverage are enough to make any engineer squeal with delight.  The question that immediately follows is, “How much does parylene cost?” 

There are a couple different factors that go into decided parylene cost.  One of these factors is the material cost.  Parylene dimer can be anywhere from $100 to $10,000+ per pound depending on the type and quality.  Other raw materials, such as the cleaning materials and adhesion promotion mediums, also factor into the materials costs for parylene.

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Tags: parylene, parylene cost, parylene conformal coating, parylene coating process, parylene dimer, parylene properties

Diamond-SCH exhibiting at Nepcon Shenzhen Aug 28-30!

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 24, 2012 @ 08:06 AM

Diamond SCH Global Conformal Coating Solution Provider exhibiting at Nepcon Shenzhen next week

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, Diamond-MT, conformal coating, conformal coating trade shows, Nexus3C, RFI/EMI Shielding

What can be parylene coated?

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Jun 26, 2012 @ 01:08 PM

A question we often get is “Can Xbe parylene coated?”  We are often amazed at the shear number of items that can be and are coated with parylene.  A quick look at the different items that we have parylene coated over the years reveals that more often than not, parylene coating is a value add to these and many more products:
  • Printed circuit boards
  • MEMs
  • LEDs
  • Catheters
  • Stents
  • Magnets
  • Paper
  • Needles
  • Sensors
  • Ferrite Cores
  • Metallic Blocks
  • Optical lenses
  • Implantable devices
  • Valves
  • O-rings
  • Tubing
  • Silicon Wafers
  • Keypads
  • Stoppers
  • Seals
  • Mandrels
  • Molds
  • Motor Assemblies
  • Power Supplies
  • Backplanes
  • Photoelectric Cells
  • Forceps
  • Test tubes
  • Probes
  • Fiber Optic Components
  • Pace-makers
  • Bobbins
  • And many more…
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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene applications, electronics, implantable devices, parylene coated

What is the right conformal coating for LEDs?

Posted by Sean Horn on Thu, Jun 21, 2012 @ 11:50 AM

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are a huge and growing even bigger segment of the electronics industry.  LEDs are expanding into environments that demand a higher l evel of protection in order for the LED to function properly.  One way to get this level of protection is by using conformal coating.

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Tags: acrylic conformal coating, parylene, conformal coating, silicone conformal coating, LED conformal coating, conformal coating masking, parylene for LEDs

Parylene and MEMS Technology

Posted by Sean Horn on Mon, Jun 18, 2012 @ 07:52 AM

In the past decade, the use of Parylene as a structural material in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices has attracted significant attention.  Parylene C, known for its biocompatibility, is widely used in implantable medical devices.  Parylene C is also compatible with MEMS microfabrication processes.

WHAT ARE MEMS?

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is the technology of very small devices; it merges at the nano-scale into nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nanotechnology.  MEMS are made up of components between 1 to 100 micrometres in size (i.e. 0.001 to 0.1 mm), and MEMS devices generally range in size from 20 micrometres (20 millionths of a metre) to a millimetre (i.e. 0.02 to 1.0 mm). They usually consist of a central unit that processes data (the microprocessor) and several components that interact with the outside such as microsensors.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene deposition, conformal coating thickness, parylene thickness, parylene C, Parylene and MEMS, MEMS

Parylene for use in Bio-Medical implantable devices

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Jun 12, 2012 @ 10:52 AM

Whenever implantable devices come into contact with the human body, long term protection against body fluids, enzymes, proteins, and lipids is vital.  Bio-medical surfaces typically require coating to protect from moisture, chemicals, and other potentially harmful substances.

 A downfall for wet chemistry, liquid coatings such as silicones, acrylics, epoxy, or urethanes is that they do not meet bio-compatibility requirements and cannot be applied with precise control.  On the contrary, parylene does not out-gas and is very effective against the passage of contaminants from both the body to substrate or substrate to body.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, Medical conformal coatings, parylene C, implantable devices, medical parylene, medical parylene uses, medical devices, bio-medical

Rugged electronics and conformal coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Thu, Jun 07, 2012 @ 02:20 PM

With an increased military presence throughout the world, as well as our dependence on electronics for critical functions, it is no surprise the defense and electronicsindustries are turning to ruggedized electronics.  The market has expanded to over $500 million dollars through the end of 2011.
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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, rugged electronics, defense, electronics

Silicone Conformal Coating offers many benefits

Posted by Sean Horn on Mon, Jun 04, 2012 @ 01:39 PM

Silicone conformal coating is becoming an increasingly popular choice for conformal coating applications.  Because of its high temperature capabilities, moisture protection, and ease of application/rework, people are strongly considering silicone coatings for their projects.

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Tags: parylene, conformal coating, silicone conformal coating, conformal coatings, Automotive conformal coatings, conformal coating rework

Parylene-Enabled Flexible Prosthetic Devices: A Review

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 25, 2012 @ 06:10 AM

The focus of this paper was the flexible electrode and flexible coil components in which parylene C is used not simply as a coating, but as the structural material as well.  Parylene C was chosen as the structural material because parylene is pinhole-free, uniformly conforming, its low water permeability, its USP Class VI biocompatibility, and its high flexibility and mechanical strength.
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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene coating process, Medical conformal coatings, implantable devices, medical parylene

Choosing Parylene Thickness

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, May 02, 2012 @ 04:04 PM

A question that is often brought up by customers who are new to conformal coating is what thickness to apply parylene.

One of the different factors to take into account when trying to determine the proper parylene thickness is the amount of clearance needed.  If it is a printed circuit board that is an enclosure, there usually will not be too many clearance issues.  However, in some cases, even an extra mil of coating can cause extra mechanical abrasion to the parylene which can result in damaged parylene.

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Tags: parylene, parylene conformal coating, parylene process, conformal coating, parylene thickness

Diamond-MT to exhibit at the BIOMEDevice in Boston April 25-26

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Apr 17, 2012 @ 08:42 AM

Diamond-MT is proud to announce that it will be exhibiting at  BIOMEDevice in Boston through April 25-26, 2012.  Diamond-MT will be featuring its  parylene coating services and  conformal coating services as well as  conformal coating equipment and consultation and training services.     
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Tags: parylene, Diamond-MT, conformal coating, conformal coating equipment, conformal coating trade shows, conformal coating service, parylene coating service

How Parylene Cost is Determined

Posted by Sean Horn on Mon, Apr 16, 2012 @ 03:34 PM

Parylene is often priced out to be one of the more expensive conformal coating options.  After a quick look at some of the cost factors, it will be easy to see why.  Three of the main factors that influence parylene cost are raw materials, labor, and lot volume. 

 Raw Materials – Parylene Dimer and Adhesion Promotion

 Parylene dimer is the raw form of parylene.  It is the solid inserted into the machine that is broken down through the deposition process.  Cost for parylene dimer can be anywhere from $200 to $5,000 per pound depending on the different type of dimer.  A typical coating run is around a pound of dimer.

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Tags: parylene, parylene cost, parylene process, parylene deposition, parylene dimer, conformal coating process, conformal coating methods, conformal coating service, parylene adhesion, parylene coating service, conformal coating costs

All about the Parylene Coating Process

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Apr 03, 2012 @ 11:21 AM

Parylene Coating Process – Phase 1 – Prior to Parts Arrival

 Once we receive a purchase order from a customer, all of the pertinent information such as drawings, specifications, and special instructions are given to the quality department from our marketing team to create custom work instructions for that particular part. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, parylene deposition, Diamond-MT, conformal coating, parylene adhesion, parylene coating service

How to Improve Parylene Adhesion

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Mar 28, 2012 @ 02:28 PM

How to Improve Parylene Adhesion

 Parylene, through its deposition process, does not adhere chemically, only mechanically, to any given substrate.  In order to improve parylene adhesion to its best possible levels for a wide variety of substrates, different methods of surface modification via adhesion promoters must be used.  Adhesion promotion methods are typically used prior to the actual coating process, however some can be integrated during the process itself.

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, parylene deposition, conformal coating, parylene adhesion

The Parylene Deposition Process

Posted by Sean Horn on Thu, Mar 22, 2012 @ 09:00 AM

The Parylene Deposition Process

 Parylene coating is applied through a vapor deposition process onto the substrate or material that is being coated.  Depending on the coating type and required thickness, typical parylene deposition rates are about .2/mils per hour, so machine runs can vary from as little as 1 hour to over 24 hours.  The process begins with raw dimer in solid state (these are:  Parylene C, Parylene N, Parylene D, Parylene AF-4, or other variants) being placed into a loading boat, which is then inserted into the vaporizer.  The raw dimer is heated between 100-150º C.  At this time, the vapor is pulled, under vacuum into the furnace and heated to very high temperatures which allows for sublimation and the splitting of the molecule into a monomer.   The monomer gas continues to be drawn by vacuum one molecule at a time onto the desired substrate at ambient temperatures in the coating chamber.  The final stage of the parylene deposition process is the cold trap.  The cold trap is cooled to between -90º and -120º C and is responsible for removing all residual parylene materials pulled through the coating chamber.       

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, parylene deposition, parylene dimer