Parylene Coating Blog by Diamond-MT

How Fast Does Parylene Deposit?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 20, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene conformal coatings combine a number of properties that are attractive for use in a wide spectrum of applications. Their low dielectric properties, high mechanical strength, transparency, bio compatibility, chemical inertness against all of the common acids, bases and organic solvents, low water/gas permeability and thermal properties make them interesting for use in many industries. Also, pinhole-free Parylene conformal coatings with a thickness higher than 0.1 μm are possible and have been reported earlier [1]. Therefore, understanding their deposition process and characteristics is important.

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What Temperature Will My Parts See During the Parylene Coating Process?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Nov 13, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene coating process involves 3 steps: sublimation, pyrolysis, and polymerization. At the first step, which takes place between 120°C - 175°C, the dimer parylene powder precursor is sublimized and pyrolysed forming the monomers (see Figure). Next, Pyrolysis takes place which is defined as the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures (above 500 °C) in an inert atmosphere and this reaction is irreversible. Finally, monomers get deposited onto the substrate and all the other surfaces available in the deposition chamber. Monomers form long chained polymers at this step.

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Can Parylene be Layered?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Oct 02, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Multilayer conformal coatings are advantageous in resolving diffusion or stability issues. A vast amount of knowledge is available in the literature about the use of multilayered stacks of Parylene and stacks making use of different intermediate materials such as metals and so on. Mostly, use of Multiple layers of Parylene C was commonly reported for Medical Implants [1].

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What Happens to Parylene when the Dielectric Voltage is Exceeded?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 24, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Poly(para-xylylene) derivatives (parylenes) are used as conformal coatings in a wide range of applications in the automotive, medical, electronics, military and semiconductor industries. They are inert, transparent and have excellent barrier properties as dielectric thin films. Because their deposition takes placeunder vacuum sub-micron range crevices can be coated leading to excellent barrier properties (void free) and they have extraordinary purity that is of great importance in electronic applications. Not all parylene derivatives show same dielectric properties (Table 1). It is also important to note that dielectric properties of parylenes depend on their thickness thus their %crystallinity which is explained below.

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5 Keys to Parylene Process

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 10, 2020 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene Process:

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Why does the parylene process take so long?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Mar 06, 2020 @ 01:38 PM

Parylene is a transparent polymer that offers uniform and pinhole-free conformal coatings for printed circuit boards, medical devices, and microelectronics. Varieties of parylene are made available through a modification of the molecular structure of para-xylylene (Parylene N, C, D, and F-AF4, and F-VT4). Each modification results in a set of material properties that are applicable in different service conditions.

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What do I need for a Parylene Coating Quote?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 21, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

          Parylene’s (XY) reputation as the most versatile and reliable of major conformal coating materials is well-earned.  However, unlike liquid coatings –resins of acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane – parylene cannot be applied via relatively economical brush, dip or spray methods.  XY can be the most expensive of the major conformal coatings to use, a factor influenced both by:

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Can Parylene be used as a Standalone Enclosure?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 14, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

Parylene (XY) polymer conformal films are recognized for their exceptional range of desirable functional properties for coating printed circuit boards (PCBs) and similar electronics.  Beneficial properties include biocompatibility, chemical/solvent resistance, dielectric/insulative reliability, and ultra-thin pinhole-free film thicknesses between 1-50 μm.  They also generate complete surface conformability, regardless of substrate configuration, exceeding the coating capabilities of liquid conformal materials, such as acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane.   

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Elongation Properties of Parylene

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 07, 2018 @ 03:04 PM

For conformal coatings, elongation is a measure of material ductility -- a specific coating's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture.  A coating’s yield elongation is the maximum stress the material will sustain before fracture.  Thus, computed parylene (XY) elongation measurements represent the total quantity of strain the conformal film can withstand before failure.  While elongation is equal to a material’s operating failure strain, it has no exclusive units of measurements.  Typically,

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What Temperature is Parylene Applied At?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Aug 03, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

Parylene (XY) conformal coatings are applied to substrate materials through a specialized chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process that completely eliminates the liquid phase of wet coatings.  No initiators or catalysts are involved in CVD polymerization, which synthesizes truly conformal protective film in-process.  This is in stark contrast to wet coating materials such as acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane, which are synthesized prior to application via, brush, dip or spray methods.  Wet during application, liquid-coated substrates requiring further drying and curing.

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Can I Glue to Parylene?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 27, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

With reliable moisture barrier properties, parylene (XY) conformal coatings generally have a hydrophobic surface when deposited onto substrates, causing liquids to form separate droplets on film surfaces.  While this outcome is useful for many XY applications, greater hydrophilic response, wherein XY molecules form ionic or hydrogen bonds with water molecules, can also be desired.  This can be achieved by applying glue or epoxy on top the deposited parylene; surfaces acquire enhanced hydrophilic properties, becoming more wettable. 

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In-Line Parylene Processing??

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jun 29, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

The phrase “in-line parylene processing" is deceptive  because it does not accurately describe the method in which parylene (XY) is applied as a conformal coating.  It is true that some aspects of the traditional production line are relevant, but primarily in a fractional way. without the traditional station-to-station regimentation of standard in-line manufacturing processes.

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Inspecting Parylene Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 13, 2018 @ 07:30 AM

Parylene conformal coating (XY) provides insulative protection for complex electronic circuit assemblies expected to function through rigorous operating conditions -- potential chemical, electrical, moisture and vapor incursion during performance.   Applied through chemical vapor deposition (CVD), parylene penetrates deep within substrate surfaces, generating a level of assembly security surpassing that offered by liquid coatings such as acrylic, epoxy, silicone and urethane.  Yet, although XY is applied in a vacuum, it’s capacity to provide these extraordinary qualities does not exist in one.  Parylene’s durable protective value depends on film adhesion, a quality subject to persistent, thorough inspection throughout the production process.

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Paralene, Paralyne, or Parylene: Correctly Spelling and Using This Superior Conformal Coating

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Dec 01, 2017 @ 08:01 AM

Accidentally discovered in 1947, by chemist Michael Szwarc, the polymer parylene originally bore his name, and was known for a brief period known as Szwarcite. Working to thermally decompose the solvent p-xylene at temperatures exceeding 1000 °C, Szwarc identified the monomer para-xylylene di-iodide as the only product resulting when para-xylylene was reacted with iodine.

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The Importance of Cleanliness Testing

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 07, 2017 @ 07:23 AM

The Need for Cleanliness Testing                                          

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Solvent Use in Parylene Deposition

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, May 26, 2017 @ 07:32 AM

For various reasons, even people familiar with the variety of existing conformal coatings, their strengths, weaknesses and respective use often assume that the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process used for parylene films incorporates a solvent, as an integral component of the procedure.  This is false, for the reasons detailed below.

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Batch Size Considerations for Parylene Production

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 14, 2017 @ 07:35 AM

The parylenes consist of a range of para-xylylene polymers whose desirable physical and electrical properties support expansive utilization as conformal coatings for electronic and medical devices  Parylene films are applied to substrates via a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, which deposits monomeric parylene vapor homogeneously and deeply into the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and related assemblies/components. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, parylene deposition, parylene disadvantages

How to Estimate Parylene Coating Costs

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 29, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Often considered the ultimate conformal coating, Parylene is well suited to protect many types of products and devices.

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Common Parylene Problems

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 15, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

In addition to cracking, a range of associated issues may interfere with successful coating of parylene films.  Because it is applied via CVD, parylene generates a structurally continuous film covering a PCB or similar assembly.  In CVD, the interaction of vapor-phase chemical reactants formulate a non-volatile solid film on a substrate, useful for a variety of applications like corrosion resistance, erosion defense, and high temperature protection. 

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What Is the Price of Parylene Conformal Coating?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Jul 08, 2016 @ 07:30 AM

Parylene is often considered the ultimate conformal coating for the protection of devices, components, and surfaces in the electronics, instrumentation, aerospace, medical, and engineering industries.

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Does Parylene Adhere Chemically?

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Apr 01, 2016 @ 08:10 AM

            Parylene only adheres to substrates mechanically, and this can require assistance from additive substances; parylene’s chemically-based adherence is nonexistent.  Adhesion is a consequence of molecular attraction stimulating the surface unification of two dissimilar substances; their joining creates a significant physical bond between them.  Of the two primary types of adhesion, chemical adhesion results when a compound joins with another, because they share sufficient mutual chemical interaction to form a bond with each other.  Because parylene is chemically inert, chemical adhesion is impossible; it adheres using the other method -- mechanical adhesion.  Applied mechanical processes can stimulate this binding force between surface molecules.   

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Mastering the Parylene Coating Process

Posted by Sean Horn on Fri, Sep 04, 2015 @ 08:00 AM

Parylene Deposition  

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Parylene Masking Revealed

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Aug 14, 2013 @ 09:07 AM

Whether the application is a medical device, a printed circuit board (PCB), or a light-emitting diode (LED), a parylene conformal coating is typically applied to protect the product. Sometimes, however, the product actually has to be protected from the parylene conformal coating—or at least parts of it do. 

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Choosing Parylene Thickness

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, May 02, 2012 @ 04:04 PM

A question that is often brought up by customers who are new to conformal coating is what thickness to apply parylene.

One of the different factors to take into account when trying to determine the proper parylene thickness is the amount of clearance needed.  If it is a printed circuit board that is an enclosure, there usually will not be too many clearance issues.  However, in some cases, even an extra mil of coating can cause extra mechanical abrasion to the parylene which can result in damaged parylene.

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How Parylene Cost is Determined

Posted by Sean Horn on Mon, Apr 16, 2012 @ 03:34 PM

Parylene is often priced out to be one of the more expensive conformal coating options.  After a quick look at some of the cost factors, it will be easy to see why.  Three of the main factors that influence parylene cost are raw materials, labor, and lot volume. 

 Raw Materials – Parylene Dimer and Adhesion Promotion

 Parylene dimer is the raw form of parylene.  It is the solid inserted into the machine that is broken down through the deposition process.  Cost for parylene dimer can be anywhere from $200 to $5,000 per pound depending on the different type of dimer.  A typical coating run is around a pound of dimer.

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All about the Parylene Coating Process

Posted by Sean Horn on Tue, Apr 03, 2012 @ 11:21 AM

Parylene Coating Process – Phase 1 – Prior to Parts Arrival

 Once we receive a purchase order from a customer, all of the pertinent information such as drawings, specifications, and special instructions are given to the quality department from our marketing team to create custom work instructions for that particular part. 

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, parylene deposition, Diamond-MT, conformal coating, parylene adhesion, parylene coating service

How to Improve Parylene Adhesion

Posted by Sean Horn on Wed, Mar 28, 2012 @ 02:28 PM

How to Improve Parylene Adhesion

 Parylene, through its deposition process, does not adhere chemically, only mechanically, to any given substrate.  In order to improve parylene adhesion to its best possible levels for a wide variety of substrates, different methods of surface modification via adhesion promoters must be used.  Adhesion promotion methods are typically used prior to the actual coating process, however some can be integrated during the process itself.

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The Parylene Deposition Process

Posted by Sean Horn on Thu, Mar 22, 2012 @ 09:00 AM

The Parylene Deposition Process

 Parylene coating is applied through a vapor deposition process onto the substrate or material that is being coated.  Depending on the coating type and required thickness, typical parylene deposition rates are about .2/mils per hour, so machine runs can vary from as little as 1 hour to over 24 hours.  The process begins with raw dimer in solid state (these are:  Parylene C, Parylene N, Parylene D, Parylene AF-4, or other variants) being placed into a loading boat, which is then inserted into the vaporizer.  The raw dimer is heated between 100-150º C.  At this time, the vapor is pulled, under vacuum into the furnace and heated to very high temperatures which allows for sublimation and the splitting of the molecule into a monomer.   The monomer gas continues to be drawn by vacuum one molecule at a time onto the desired substrate at ambient temperatures in the coating chamber.  The final stage of the parylene deposition process is the cold trap.  The cold trap is cooled to between -90º and -120º C and is responsible for removing all residual parylene materials pulled through the coating chamber.       

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Tags: parylene, parylene process, parylene deposition, parylene dimer